George H. Fried, George J. Hademenos's Schaum's Outline of Biology (4th Edition) (Schaum's Outlines PDF


By George H. Fried, George J. Hademenos

ISBN-10: 0071811311

ISBN-13: 9780071811316

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Extra info for Schaum's Outline of Biology (4th Edition) (Schaum's Outlines Series)

Example text

2H2 O Now the equation is balanced. 14. Do all chemical reactions go to completion? In actual fact, most chemical reactions do not go to completion. A state of balance, or equilibrium, is reached in which the concentrations of the reactants and the concentrations of the products reach a fixed ratio. This ratio is known as the equilibrium constant and is different for each chemical reaction. An equation may be viewed as a balance between two reactions—a forward reaction in which the reactants are changed to products and a reverse reaction in which the products interact to form reactants.

3. The catalyzed reaction proceeds at velocities between 106–108-fold greater than the velocity of the uncatalyzed reaction. Enzymes are generally complex globular proteins with a special region in the molecule known as the active site. The substance that the enzyme acts upon, the substrate, fits into a cleft, or groove, of the active site and attaches to areas of complementary charge found in the active site. As a result of this attachment, the substrate is stretched or otherwise distorted and thus more readily undergoes appropriate chemical change.

The protein is actually a polymer composed of many subunits (monomers) known as amino acids. The amino acids usually found in proteins show the following structure: The COOH (carboxyl) group is characteristic of all organic acids and is attached to the same carbon as the NH2 group. This carbon is designated the a-carbon atom; the entire amino acid is known as an a-amino acid. The R is a general designation for a variety of side groups that differentiate the 20 different amino acids found in nature, as shown in Fig.

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Schaum's Outline of Biology (4th Edition) (Schaum's Outlines Series) by George H. Fried, George J. Hademenos

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