By AUDREY L. ALTSTADT
In 1990, centuries of harsh domination culminated in Black January, while Soviet Troops opened fireplace at the civilian inhabitants of Baku. the subsequent yr, Azebaijan declared its independence and started rebuilding its political and financial system. Former Communists and competition leaders proceed to fight for dominance. Audrey L. Alstadt uses either Russian-language and Azerbaijani Turkish-language newspapers, journals, and scholarly guides. a lot of this fabric hasn't ever been utilized in the other Western stories. Altstadt's unique study provides the Azerbaijani standpoint at the two-century dating among Russia and Azerbaijan. She identifies key matters and actors and files a trend of continuous fight opposed to colonial rule from the preliminary conquest to the political activities of the past due 20th century. Russian domination has encompassed greater than the army, political, and monetary spheres. There have additionally been harsh regulations on cultural expression, together with killing top intellectuals and falsifying historic evidence. although, Azerbaijani Turks proceed to thwart Russian keep watch over by way of keeping their wealthy and historic history via native-language schooling and the humanities. As Alstadt writes, "The Azerbaijani Turks used the antiquity in their historical past language, and literature as a weapon of self-defense, as evidence they want no tutelage in self-government, monetary administration, schooling or literature."