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Rockville, MD, pp. 3584–3591, 1990. 11. Graham, S. , Lawrence, R. , Ormsby, E. , and Pikc, R. , Pharm. , 12, 1380, 1995. 2 DATA GRAPHICS ‘‘The preliminary examination of most data is facilitated by the use of diagrams. Diagrams prove nothing, but bring outstanding features readily to the eye; they are therefore no substitute for such critical tests as may be applied to the data, but are valuable in suggesting such tests, and in explaining the conclusions founded upon them’’ This quote is from Ronald A.

D. ) as a group of animals with average weight 70 g and standard deviation of 7 g. d. being proportional to the mean. V. as high as 100% or more. V. observed in biological experiments is due mostly to ‘‘biological variation,’’ the lack of reproducibility in living material. On the other hand, the variability in chemical and instrumental analyses of drugs is usually relatively small. V. of less than 1% for some analytical procedures. 4 Standard Deviation of the Mean (Standard Error of the Mean) The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of a group of individual observations, a measure of their variability.

16 Chapter 1 denotes a value below which n percent of the data are found, and above which (100 ‫מ‬ n) percent of the data are found. The 10th, 25th, and 75th percentiles represent values below which 10%, 25%, and 75%, respectively, of the data occur. 5 mg of drug. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles are also known as the first, second, and third quartiles, respectively. The mode is less often used as the central, or typical, value of a distribution. The mode is that value which occurs with the greatest frequency.

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Manual of herbarium taxonomy by De Vogel

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