Petroleum Radiation Processing by Yuriy Zaikin, Raissa Zaikina PDF
By Yuriy Zaikin, Raissa Zaikina
Radiation-thermal cracking of oil feedstock has the aptitude to provide an answer to some of the demanding situations the oil is dealing with. Radiation-induced chain cracking reactions in hydrocarbons at reduced temperatures initiated the advance of superior technological techniques, combining the benefits of radiation-thermal cracking and low-temperature feedstock processing. even though, researchers nonetheless face hindrances within the sensible program of concept and experimental facts, and the literature provides contradictions that must be looked after out for additional improvement of this technology.
Petroleum Radiation Processing fills a knowledge hole, supplying systematic descriptions of the basics of radiation-induced cracking reactions in hydrocarbons. It analyzes the fundamental experiments that experience caused the fast improvement of radiation know-how for petroleum radiation processing over the last a long time. The publication presents an in depth creation to radiation tools in response to radiation-thermal and low-temperature cracking of hydrocarbons, emphasizing high-viscous oil feedstocks which are tricky to strategy through traditional methods—such as heavy and high-paraffinic crude oil, gas oil, and bitumen. It is helping readers comprehend the mechanisms and kinetics of low-temperature radiation cracking.
The publication addresses the appliance of promising radiation tools for fixing serious environmental matters, similar to oil desulfurization and regeneration of used lubricants and different used oil items. reading experimental information in addition to theoretical and technical techniques, it summarizes learn development within the box of petroleum radiation processing, delivering an invaluable reference at the concept and know-how of hydrocarbon radiation processing for chemical technologists, researchers, and students.
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Additional info for Petroleum Radiation Processing
Account of contribution of the radiation-excited molecular states to chain propagation leads to considerable increase in the calculated cracking rate at the given temperature. 24b). As dose rate increases, a noticeable rate of radiation cracking can be reached at lowered temperatures (down to room temperature). 24 Dependence of the radiation cracking rate on dose rate. (a) 100°C–277°C, (b) 350°C and 400°C. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Theory of Radiation-Induced Cracking Reactions in Hydrocarbons 31 The experiments on radiation processing of heavy oil and bitumen (Zakin and Zaikina 2004a,b, 2008b) have shown that formation of low-temperature structures in this kind of feedstock may cause a considerable increase in the critical dose rate of the cracking start and decrease in the cracking rate at the given dose rate by more than an order of magnitude.
As a result of interaction of an unstable radical pair R + R′ with a light alkyl radical, the unstable radical R′ can decompose forming a new reactive radical capable of chain propagation. 26. If no interaction of such unstable molecular states with a reactive radical happens during its lifetime, then a big alkyl radical will stabilize its electron structure and form an isomer by attaching another radical. Therefore, there are reasons to conclude that alkane isomerization makes a major contribution to both cracking termination at the critical temperature and generation of unstable molecular states responsible for chain propagation in LTRC.
Such accelerators are currently widely used in various technological applications demonstrating high reliability of operation in the industrial environment. For the given type of feedstock, the critical dose rate for the cracking start is about 40 kGy at a temperature of 0°C. As temperature increases to 200°C, the critical dose rate drops down to about 9 kGy/s. It will be shown in the following text that, even in this case, a noticeable rate of “cold” cracking can be observed at dose rates higher than 20 kGy/s.
Petroleum Radiation Processing by Yuriy Zaikin, Raissa Zaikina