New PDF release: Water Hammer in Pipe-Line Systems
By J. Záruba
The actual ideas of water hammer are defined during this quantity. the elemental mathematical tools of resolution of water hammer and methods of restricting its results are lined. special description is given of the tactic of features and the corresponding courses for private desktops, which permits answer of water hammer in a large choice of hydraulic platforms encountered in perform. Examples are given of answer of water hammer of universal pipe-line structures in addition to calculation of the regular country of move, the selection of discharge via a pipe-line, measurements of features of valves, pumps, generators, decision of the working régime of a valve with the intention to confirm a wanted strain and discharge curve, and so on. This publication could be of curiosity to these civil, mechanical and petroleum engineers facing the layout and operation of hydraulic platforms.
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Additional resources for Water Hammer in Pipe-Line Systems
Without this assumption, the wave velocity would vary in the course of water hammer. The method of calculation is not applicable to such a case. The velocity of propagation of the pressure wave through the pipe-line may be influenced not only by the elasticity of the pipe-line but also by other factors, such as cavitation due to a drop in pressure (refer to Sect. 9), the presence of gas (refer to Sect. 7) or of solid particles (refer to Sect. 6) in the pipe-line as well as other possible factors.
Solid particles may settle in a pipe-line and reduce its cross-sectional area so that the velocity of the flowing liquid is higher for the same discharge and the pressure variations at water hammer are increased. The effect of solid particles in a pipe-line is described in more detail in Sect. 6. There are many other causes of water hammer. In more complex systems especially, the cumulative effect of several types of devices which influence water hammer may have an adverse effect. However, even in simple cases, for example in pumping water into a reservoir, manipulations very unfavourable with regard to water hammer may take place.
47 Solution of the basic eyuotions The program can, however, be easily expanded to include a greater number of sections and junctions, the capacity of the computer memory forming the only limitation. In the calculation, the actual lengths of the sections are usually not considered; they are instead rounded off to whole multiples of the values A x = a At (34 where Ax and a are the longitudinal interval of calculation and the wave velocity, respectively, for the pipe-line section under consideration.
Water Hammer in Pipe-Line Systems by J. Záruba