Download PDF by James G. Speight: The Desulfurization of Heavy Oils and Residua (Chemical


By James G. Speight

ISBN-10: 0824789210

ISBN-13: 9780824789213

Moment version expands and updates details at the technological elements of refining heavy oils, residua, bitumen, and different high-sulfur feedstocks. specializes in the variety of next-generation refining tactics.

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Extra resources for The Desulfurization of Heavy Oils and Residua (Chemical Industries)

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Removal of distillate without thermal decomposition, dictates that the majority of the sulfur, which is predominantly in the higher-molecularweight fractions, be concentrated in the residuum (Figures 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, and 2-5) (Gary and Handwerk, 1984). 2 Metals Content Metals (particularly vanadium and nickel ) are found in most crude oils. Heavy oils and residua contain relatively high proportions of metals either in the form of salts or as organometallic constituents (such as the metallo-porphyrins), which are extremely difficult to remove from the feedstock.

The feed to a typical tower enters the vaporizing or flash zone, an area without trays. The majority of the trays are usually located above this area. The feed to a bubble tower, however, may be at any point from top to bottom with trays above and below the entry point, depending on the kind of feedstock and the characteristics desired in the products. Liquid collects on each tray to a depth of, say, several inches and the depth controlled by a dam or weir. As the liquid level rises, excess liquid spills over the weir into a channel (downspout), which carries the liquid to the tray below.

However, before dealing with the methods used to evaluate petroleum feedstocks, it is necessary to briefly recap the nature of refinery processes. This will help put evaluation methods into the correct perspective. In general terms, refinery processes can be conveniently divided into three different types (Figure 2-1) (Speight, 1999): 1. Separation: division of the feedstock into various streams (or fractions) depending upon the nature of the crude material. 2. Conversion: production of salable materials from the feedstock by skeletal alteration, or even by alteration of the chemical type, of the feedstock constituents.

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The Desulfurization of Heavy Oils and Residua (Chemical Industries) by James G. Speight

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