Download e-book for iPad: Subsidence Due to Fluid Withdrawal by E.C. Donaldson, G.V. Chilingarian, T.F. Yen

Petroleum

By E.C. Donaldson, G.V. Chilingarian, T.F. Yen

ISBN-10: 0444818200

ISBN-13: 9780444818201

Subsidence of geologic floor buildings because of withdrawal of fluids from aquifers and petroleum reservoirs is a phenomenon skilled through the international because the call for for water and hydrocarbons raises with expanding inhabitants development. This e-book addresses the definition and theories of subsidence, and the affects of distinctive stipulations on subsidence; it comprises discussions of particular box circumstances and a simple mathematical version of reservoir compaction and accompanying lack of porosity and permeability. The ebook is designed as a reference for readers giving rapid entry to the geological occasions that determine stipulations for compaction, the mathematical theories of compaction and subsidence, and useful issues of box case histories in a number of areas of the realm.

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05 mm in size. Many river sediments probably would fall in this area. Grain-size distributions are commonly made up of more than one log-normal population and can, therefore, provide information concerning the depositional processes. The distributions are commonly composed of three populations (Fig. 1-11), which can be characterized according to grain-size distributions of each of the populations making up the sediment. Referring to Fig. 1-11, (A) represents a distribution of grains transported by saltation; (B) is principally transported in suspension; and (C) transported by rolling along the surface of a stream bed (Visher, 1967).

There are numerous sand classifications, most of which are basically methods of determining the relative proportions and compositions of fragments and matrices. The common minerals present in terrigenous sediments originating from muds are the clay minerals illite, kaolinite, smectite, and chlorite. Smectite is a mineral group which includes montmorillonite as a principal variety. Illite is commonly formed from mild leaching of potassium feldspar-rich granites. Diagenetic alteration of montmorillonite also yields mixed-layer clays and illite.

The basic form of the equation was developed by Kozeny (1927) and critically reviewed and extended by Carman (1937) who conducted numerous experiments to verify the validity of the equation. Wyllie and Rose (1950) extended the equations to applications for the petroleum indus~ try and Donaldson et al. (1974) proved its validity for unconsolidated sands by comparing the results to measurements made by gas adsorption. In addition, they presented experimental data showing that the ratio of the specific surface areas of consolidated sandstones measured by nitrogen adsorption to that determined by the Kozeny-Carman equation ranged from 26 to 43.

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Subsidence Due to Fluid Withdrawal by E.C. Donaldson, G.V. Chilingarian, T.F. Yen


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