Java Language Specification by James Gosling PDF
By James Gosling
Written by way of the inventors of the expertise, The Java™ Language Specification, 3rd version , is the definitive technical reference for the Java™ programming language. a good way to be aware of the proper that means of the language's constructs, this can be the resource for you.
The booklet presents entire, exact, and exact assurance of the Java programming language. It offers complete insurance of all new good points additional because the prior version, together with generics, annotations, asserts, autoboxing, enums, for-each loops, variable arity equipment, and static import clauses.
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Extra resources for Java Language Specification
Lexical Structure Lexicographer: A writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge. Samuel Johnson, Dictionary (1755) This chapter specifies the lexical structure of the Java programming language. 3) can be used to include any Unicode character using only ASCII characters. 4) to support the different conventions of existing host systems while maintaining consistent line numbers. 7), and tokens. 12) of the syntactic grammar. 1. Unicode Programs are written using the Unicode character set. org The Java platform tracks the Unicode specification as it evolves.
6). Otherwise, the operation is carried out using 32-bit precision, and the result of the numerical operator is of type int. If either operand is 54 55 not an int, it is first widened to type int by numeric promotion. The built-in integer operators do not indicate overflow or underflow in any way. 8) of a null reference is required. 7) is required and there is not sufficient memory available to perform the conversion. println(20296 / (l - i)); } } produces the output: -727379968 1000000000000 and then encounters an ArithmeticException in the division by l - i, because l - i is zero.
4). 3. 3). The longest possible translation is used at each step, even if the result does not ultimately make a correct program while another lexical translation would. 5) as a, --, b, which is not part of any grammatically correct program, even though the tokenization a, -, -, b could be part of a grammatically correct program. 3. 1) with the indicated hexadecimal value, and passing all other characters unchanged. Representing supplementary characters requires two consecutive Unicode escapes. This translation step results in a sequence of Unicode input characters: UnicodeInputCharacter: UnicodeEscape RawInputCharacter UnicodeEscape: \ UnicodeMarker HexDigit HexDigit HexDigit HexDigit UnicodeMarker: u UnicodeMarker u RawInputCharacter: any Unicode character HexDigit: one of 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f A B C D E F The \, u, and hexadecimal digits here are all ASCII characters.
Java Language Specification by James Gosling