Introducing Environment by Alice Peasgood PDF

Environmental Studies

By Alice Peasgood

ISBN-10: 0199217130

ISBN-13: 9780199217137

Our planet is a dynamic community of strength, organisms, and non-living fabric - producing biodiversity on a world scale. yet how does this community function? How do its key elements have interaction, and the way is it regulated? How is human job affecting those interactions, and at what cost?Introducing atmosphere takes the reader on a guided travel of a few of the main environmental problems with our time. beginning with the skinny layer of lifestyles upon our planet - the biosphere - it explains ecological strategies reminiscent of species, foodstuff chain, atmosphere and biodiversity. From that organic foundation, it describes interrelationships among vegetation, animals and the broader surroundings with brief case reports and examples. Then, the reader learns in regards to the distinctive position of people, exhibiting the ways that we have now replaced the surroundings to fit our wishes, and utilizing ancient and modern case reviews to teach the effect of human activities.The later chapters of the ebook stream onto a extra technological procedure, taking a look at how we will inform what influence present life have upon the surroundings. subsequent, sustainability is brought, to point a number of the significant components, with examples of winning schemes to lessen environmental influence. The publication ends with the query 'what netxt?', giving the reader a chacne to contemplate the several zones of impression (personal, neighborhood, company, nationwide and foreign) which are interested by the complexity of addressing environmental problems.Introducing surroundings doesn't fake to be an all-encompassing tome, yet awakens curiosity and provokes idea to stimulate additional debate and examine. it's the perfect textual content for a person new to environmental technology and ecology trying to grasp the necessities in a short, effortless approach.

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1 1967 (after myxomatosIS) at a hypothetical site 1954 1967 Ragwo「t plentEfuE Ragwort scarce Elder bushes plerltlfuE Fewer elde「S JunlPer rare Jumper flourLShlng 40 plant specEeS 15 p一ant spec】es FlgUre 31 Some downlandspec】es I-. 3 I A SI J事T Chapter4 Changlng land, changing eCOSySternS Lntroducm9 EwlrOnrTlent whatthlS Suggests ISthat the tradlhonal South Downs vegetation reneCtS NaturafseLection a partlCular form of planトanlmal lnterrelat10nShlP - that of grazing When the,e are few rabbltS (Or Sheep) around,the plant community Changes Just as tlylarge「 anlmals compete for food, so plants compete for llght Taller plants wlth larger leaves wLu OVerShadow smaller plants Thus, previously unfamlllar SPeCleS start to dominate the landscape What the grazers are doing lS llmltLngthe ind】vidUalswiHsurvivelonge SeaSe,SOme shasaVery growth of some species - for example, tree seedllngS are not able to nounsh The community lS held ln a State Of suspense, preventing Its development Into offsp「lng-lf offsp「lngWilr woodland The added advantage lS that a greater dlVerSlty Ofplant types IS achleVed - the rather surprlSlng lmPllCatlOn lS that unfamlllarand rather rare plants are preserved by grazlngl Asthere were fewer rabbits by 1967, other anlmals were affected, reflectlng the complex lnterrelatlOnShlPS at WOrkAnlmalsthat preyed on rabbltS P fth eOemaln - foxes, badgersand buzzards,如example - fen ln numbers The mlnOtal∬ beetle has larvae that feed Just onthe dung peuets ofrabbltS,thelr numbers were sharply depleted Bird populatlOnS too Were influenced; the stone curlew population Suffered because lt Prefers to lrve on ground that lS Closely cropped by rabbit grazing The wheatear declined too, Its favoured nestlng place lS abandoned rabblt holes On the other hand, animals which compete wlthrabbltS (notablythe brown hare) thrlVed ln the lmmedlate aftermath of myxomatosIS, OWlng tO the abundance offood ln certaln tOCat10nS, rabbits are now thnvlng tO Such an extent that they are damaglng the envlrOnmentthroughextensIVe Soil eros10n ThlS has prompted some authorltleS tO lnStlgate COntrOVerSlal plans for the extensive gaSSlng Of rabblt Warrens, with the alm Ofconservmg the unlque Chalkland envlrOnment But overall, rabble numbers on the Downs are probably stlll not back to pre-myxomatosIS levels, so the tradlt10mal plants of the downland are stlll threatened To conserve the dowrLIand, grazing has to be supplled by human Interference Flocks of sheep are moved舟om slte tO Slte tO graze Humans are A=Ow about 15 mlnuteS SummarLSlng Lnterreはt10nShlPS Involved more dlreCtly too - hawthorn trees have had to be acttvely removed `byhand' Go back overwhatyou・ve read sofar ln thlS Chapter.

Of the type mentlOned ln the 一ast actlVlty LrldPLer Ll Ltはltglllg l即ILJ, t}FtZjrlglH5J tfGU:〉yj化HI> 亡‖ hltrOducLng EnvlrOnrTlent This JS an example ofa slmllar piece Ofwrltlng from a student ・wrltlng an accurate account Ofthe changes ln pOpulat10mS aS the result ofmyxomatosIS with vanous factors Farmers spread the dlSeaSe myXOmatOSIS by carTymg dead rabbltS On tOthelr farms, to reduce their numbersand prevent damage to the crops, andthe dlSeaSe Was Camed from one rabbit tOanOther by the rabblt flea This COnfusIOn may not be what the writer Intended, but what lS Written here lS not Clear A better version would be LBuzzards need rabbltS for food, So fewer rabbltS IS likely to mean fewer buzzards ' HLnt 4 (report免cts accurately) also applleS There are a flew Places where errors have crept ln `There were the same number ofelder bushes ln 1967 as ln 1954 due tothe fact that fabbltS do not eat elder so that specleS Was unaだected 'ThIS contains a factual error and a mlSunderstandlng Ofthe The rabbl上s decreased ln 1967 so many speCleS Were affected, ecology Table 2 clearly shows thatthere were fleWer elder bushes Ln 1967 especlally the vegetahon and animals that depended on the rabbits The rewritten account (See below) gives the correct ecological explanation for food As myxomatosIS SPread, the buzzards were affected as they There LS also a guess lnthlS Sentence that doesn't relate to any of the facts ate the rabbltS, SO there were fewer buzzards There were the same presented `There were very fewbrown hares before 1954 'We are not number ofelder bushes ln 1967 as ln 1954 due tothe factthat rabbltS told anythlng about the actual numbers of hares Allthat can be Bald lSthat the do not eat elder so that specleS Was unaffected There were very few numbers will probably be greater ln 1967 than ln 1954jor the reasons stated brown hares before 1954, but their numbers would have Increased as ln the rewntten accollnt below the rabbltS decllned Fewer rabbits means more food for the brown hares So, as a result OfthlS Change・ there were more hares ThlS shows some lnterrelat10nSh'ps ln the ecosystem 7 Using the four hlntS for good wrltlng (SectlOm 4 4), let's look at whatthlS AHowabout30 mlnUteS Rewrltlng a draft student has written and see how lt Could be lmPrOVed・ Use the comments about the four hlntS tO 「eW「】te thlS StUdent■s account The student example comblneS SOmetyPICal problems Tal(lng each of the Comment hlntS ln tllm Here lS One POSSlble alternatlVe account Note that lt lS fa「sho「ter than the Hlnt 1 (wrlte ln Proper Sentences) applleS tO the nrst phrase, `Wntlng an accurate account of the changes ln POPulat10nS aS the result ofmyxomatosIS wlfh vanous factors , ThlS doesn,t sound rlght, does lt9 One possible rewrite would be ・Anaccurate account Ofthe changes ln pOPulatlOnS aS the result of maxlmum of 300 words ThlS ES acceptable for many sltUatlOnS Where the lnStrUCtl0n lS ■no nl0「e than XX wo「ds'.

ErtlllSer Can be washed Into rlVerS by the raln, gradualまy bulldlng thousands ofmlles of new track, brldges and tunnels up lnthe water supply ThlS Can have negative effects,for example some water plants can grow more vIBOrOuSly, Out ofbalance wlth the rest of the The 20th century rlVer ecosystem This Can lead to algalblooms I Vast floatmg mats of dense ln the early 20th century a method offixlng nltrOgen from the atmosphere was green plant llfle that can poISOn and even kill other species ThlS Shows that developed ArtlflCial nltfOgen ferllllSerS Were the result ThlS Was Probably the teclmOlogy can have both beneficlal and damaglng e斤eets dependlng On how most Important farming development lnthe past 100 years, as lt allowed crop lt lS Used EconomlC and polltlCal conslderatlOnS have a strong Influence on ylelds to Increase dramatlCally ThlS Was a huge change - for the first tlme Chapter4 Changlng Land, chan9Ing eCOSyStenlS lrttroduclng EnvlrOnrnent r′ the way technology lS aPPlled ln a Particular region ln developed countrleS 巧言二- ln Europeand North AmerlCa, government SubsldleS tO fa-ers can have a .

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Introducing Environment by Alice Peasgood

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