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By Robert O. Anderson
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Extra info for Fundamentals of the Petroleum Industry
Not everyone formed a company, went in partnership, or sold out. James Evans, of Franklin, Pennsylvania, a blacksmith, made his own set of light drilling tools and, with the help of two sturdy sons and a sturdier spring pole, brought in a 25-barrel-per-day oil well 75 feet down from the bottom of the family water well. This produced a heavy oil known afterwards as Franklin crude, particularly useful for lubricants. Evans refused all offers for his well and did not even sell interests in it. He lived comfortably on the income, produced only when it was convenient and expedient, and never at the maximum rate, which contemporaries figured would have yielded him $20,000 or $30,000 every three months.
Modern rigs have added installations for pressure control, such as blowout preventers (BOPs), as well as sophisticated instrumentation and automatic control. Power plants producing thousands of horsepower replaced the steam engines of a few hundred horsepower. Fluid-torque-converter transmissions have taken over from belts, pulleys, and chains. But the principle remains the same: to turn a weighted bit at the bottom of Â < previous page < previous page page_132 page_133 next page > next page > 47 48 Page 133 a hole so that it makes more hole, to provide a means of removing and replacing the bit, to maintain a suitable drilling environment in the hole, and to help the crew control the drilling and complete the well.
Strictly speaking, rotaries do not spud, although oilmen still call it "spudding" when a well is started. Because the bore of a rotary-drilled well gets narrower each time it sets casing, the driller starts with the largest feasible bit size, 24 inches for a deep well. " The threads on the bit sub - a very inexpensive piece of equipment compared to the kelly - take the wear, preserving the costly kelly, the drill collars, and the pipe. After the mud flow begins, the bit is lowered into the conductor pipe.
Fundamentals of the Petroleum Industry by Robert O. Anderson