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By Douglas A. Wolfe
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Extra info for Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Ecosystems and Organisms. Proceedings of a Symposium, November 10–12, 1976, Olympic Hotel, Seattle, Washington
Oil spilled on water is never in equilibrium with respect to solution of hydrocarbons. The only situations where measurable concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons might occur are spills where oil would completely cover a small lake with a thick layer of oil, or oil is 22 discharged in shallow nearshore waters during a storm. The rapid mixing might provide the greatest opportunity for hydrocarbons to dissolve in water. However, studies are necessary to establish actual concentrations. The above reviewed investigations show that measurable concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were not found in offshore waters, and probably are low in waters under most spills on the water surface.
Biodegradation and chemical alteration studies would record the longer-term fates of oil. The above tests should determine if oil-in-water emulsification minimizes the sinking of large globs or drops of low-specific-gravity, high-viscosity oils such as Bunker C. The tests should also show whether dispersants can prevent the formation of, and if formed, the dispersal of water-in-oil emulsions ("mousse"). Many bioassay procedures with oils do not use realistic oil concentrations, dissolved hydrocarbon compositions, and exposure times for organisms.
A number of laboratory tests exposing various species of organisms to both dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbons have demonstrated relatively rapid uptake. Almost universally these studies 26 hydrocarbons have demonstrated relatively rapid uptake. Almost universally these studies have shown rapid depuration or metabolism, followed by depuration of metabolized products when exposure ceases (Corner jet £il 1973, DiSalvo and Guard 1975, Fossato and Canzonier 1976, Lee 1975, NAS 1975, Neff and Anderson 1975, Rice e^t al^ 1976).
Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Ecosystems and Organisms. Proceedings of a Symposium, November 10–12, 1976, Olympic Hotel, Seattle, Washington by Douglas A. Wolfe