Download PDF by Ann M. Carlos: Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European
By Ann M. Carlos
Commerce by means of a Frozen Sea is a cross-cultural research of a century of touch among North American local peoples and Europeans. throughout the eighteenth century, the natives of the Hudson Bay lowlands and their eu buying and selling companions have been introduced jointly by means of an more and more renowned alternate in furs, destined for the hat and fur markets of Europe. local americans have been the only trappers of furs, which they traded to English and French retailers. The exchange gave local american citizens entry to new eu applied sciences that have been built-in into Indian lifeways. What emerges from this certain exploration is a narrative of 2 equivalent companions all in favour of a at the same time necessary trade.
Drawing on greater than seventy years of exchange files from the data of the Hudson's Bay corporation, financial historians Ann M. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis critique and confront the various myths normally held in regards to the nature and impression of business exchange. generally documented are the ways that natives reworked the buying and selling setting and made up our minds the diversity of products provided to them. Natives have been powerful bargainers who demanded functional goods equivalent to firearms, kettles, and blankets in addition to luxuries like textile, jewellery, and tobacco—goods just like these bought by means of Europeans. unusually little alcohol was once traded. certainly, Commerce by means of a Frozen Sea indicates that natives have been industrious those that accomplished a typical of residing above that of so much employees in Europe. even though they later fell in the back of, the eighteenth century used to be, for local americans, a golden age.
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Additional resources for Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European Fur Trade
On account of the export tax and the diligence of the port authorities in enumerating exports and imports, excellent trade records are available on a large number of goods. Elizabeth Schumpeter used these records to produce an export series for beaver and castor hats, which gives us a lower bound on domestic production. Exports, small initially, increased from just over 100,000 hats in 1710 to about 300,000 during the 1720s and 1730s (Figure 2). During the 1740s and 1750s exports increased further to an average of roughly 500,000 but then fell dramatically in the 1760s to 200,000 hats, which was .................
Table 1 reports the returns from the Hudson’s Bay Company’s fur auctions of November and December 1748. Parchment pelts, at these particular auctions, sold in lots of 280 or 286 pelts, with the smaller of the lots fetching bids of around £130, or just above 9 shillings per pelt. The larger lots, which were of apparently higher quality, brought in roughly 11 shillings per pelt. 6 shillings. Despite the hatters’ petitioning of the government to keep fur prices down, the price of beaver pelts in London increased markedly from 1713 to 1763 (see Table 2).
Hudson’s Bay Miscellany, opposite p. 92. Reproduced by permission from the Hudson’s Bay Company Archives, Archives of Manitoba. The Hudson’s Bay Company 47 blacksmith, cooper, bricklayer, and other men, mainly laborers. The normal complement at York Factory was between thirty-six and fifty men, but in 1740 there were fewer than thirty at the post. Because of York Factory’s almost complete isolation and its reliance on a single shipment from London, it was designed to be largely self-sufficient.
Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European Fur Trade by Ann M. Carlos