Howard Cam Luong, Jun Yin's Transformer-Based Design Techniques for Oscillators and PDF
By Howard Cam Luong, Jun Yin
This booklet presents in-depth assurance of transformer-based layout strategies that allow CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to accomplish state of the art functionality. layout, optimization, and measured functionality of oscillators and frequency dividers for various purposes are mentioned intimately, concentrating on not just ultra-low provide voltage but additionally ultra-wide frequency tuning diversity and locking diversity. This ebook should be a useful reference for an individual operating or drawn to CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave built-in circuits and systems.
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Extra info for Transformer-Based Design Techniques for Oscillators and Frequency Dividers
However, if M1/2 in the class-C VCO enters the deep triode region, the current waveforms are no longer narrow pulses as shown in Fig. 23c, so the current efficiency β in turn drops. Even worse, the low Q tail capacitor will load the tank and degrade the phase noise severely. According to Fig. 22b, the maximum differential output amplitude Vo that still keeps M1(M2) in the saturation region can be calculated as Vo VDD À VB þ Vth ð3:32Þ If VB ¼ Vth, the maximum Vo equals to VDD, which is only half of that in the classB NMOS VCO.
27 Variation of phase shift α due to the flicker noise from the coupling transistors II+,1 in,1 in,2 ID3 II+,2 a2 a1 ID1 condition and guarantee the oscillation at a lower frequency ωosc2 as shown in Fig. 25b. The detailed analysis on this bimodal oscillation phenomenon can be found in , which suggests that the ambiguity on the oscillation frequency (ωosc1, ωosc2) and IQ phase sequence can be eliminated by adding sufficient phase shift in the coupling paths. In the P-QVCO, since extra coupling transistors are employed, they would inevitably consume extra power and contribute noise to the VCO output.
Since the current efficiency β drops, then F increases, indicating that M1 and M2 now contribute more noise and that the phase noise is increased with IB. As a result, IB should be properly chosen to bias the oscillator at the boundary between the current-limited and voltage-limited regions to achieve the minimum phasenoise performance, as shown in Fig. 14. In the current-limited region, if the current commutation between M1 and M2 is fast, square-wave waveform is reasonable to be assumed with β ¼ 2=π.
Transformer-Based Design Techniques for Oscillators and Frequency Dividers by Howard Cam Luong, Jun Yin