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Most of the studies focused on clinical symptoms including vomiting and diarrhea. No data were found on biochemical changes and limited data were provided on histopathological effects. Infants appear to be particularly susceptible to boron toxicity, possibly due to the fact that their detoxifying enzyme systems are immature and there is greater gastrointestinal absorption. No studies were located in animals regarding gastrointestinal effects following boron exposure. Hepatic Effects. No adverse hepatic effects have been reported in humans or animals following inhalation or dermal exposure to boron or boron compounds.

Boron compounds are released to water in municipal sewage from perborates in detergents, and in waste waters from coal-burning power plants, copper smelters, and industries using boron. Borate levels above background may be present in runoff waters from areas where boron-containing fertilizers or herbicides were used (Butterwick et al. 1989; Nolte 1988; Waggott 1969). An average concentration of 1 mg boron/L was reported in sewage effluents in California (Butterwick et al. 1989). No other quantitative data regarding boron releases to water in the United States were located.

However, similar effects are caused by a variety of other substances and are, therefore, not specific for boron exposure. 2 Biomarkers Used to Characterize Effects Caused by Boron Central nervous system injury, gastrointestinal effects, and skin damage are characteristic manifestations of boron toxicity in humans. Liver and kidneys in humans and testes in animals can also be affected. Various clinical and biochemical changes associated with these effects may be measured to detect the extent of exposure to boron.

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