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1996). Food intake was also decreased. The reduction in body weight gain remained significant 8 days after cessation of exposure. It is impossible to tell where the actual NOAEL is from this study. 3 mg NH4/kg/day has been derived for intermediate-duration oral exposure (15–364 days) to ammonia. 5 mg/kg/day for weight loss in rats exposed to ammonium sulfamate in drinking water 6 days/week for 90 days (Gupta et al. 1979). The NOAEL was adjusted for intermittent exposure and divided by an uncertainty factor of 100 (10 for variation in sensitivity among humans and 10 for extrapolation of animal data to humans).

However, these may represent secondary complications from chronic respiratory tract injury. 2 Systemic Effects Respiratory Effects. Ammonia is an upper respiratory irritant in humans. Exposures to levels exceeding 30 ppm result in immediate irritation to the nose and throat (Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories 1973; MacEwen et al. 1970; Sekizawa and Tsubone 1994; Verberk 1977). Four out of six human subjects described moderate irritation of the nose and eyes when exposed to 50, but not 30, ppm ammonia gas for 10 minutes (MacEwen et al.

1977). The measurements for irritation were subjective and were reported by the subjects as no sensation (0), just perceptible (1), distinctly perceptible (2), nuisance (3), offensive (4), or unbearable (5); no statistical analysis was performed. Pulmonary function parameters were not statistically significantly different from pre-exposure values. The LOAEL was divided by an uncertainty factor of 30 (10 for variation in sensitivity among humans and 3 for use of a minimal LOAEL). 9 ppm ammonia measured pulmonary function change over a workshift; a small but borderline significant decrease in pulmonary function was noted (Heederik et al.

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