Download PDF by Gray Tuttle: Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China
By Gray Tuttle
During the last century and with various levels of good fortune, China has attempted to combine Tibet into the trendy chinese language countryside. during this groundbreaking paintings, grey Tuttle unearths the astonishing position Buddhism and Buddhist leaders performed within the improvement of the fashionable chinese language country and in fostering family members among Tibet and China from the Republican interval (1912-1949) to the early years of Communist rule. past exploring interactions among Buddhists and politicians in Tibet and China, Tuttle deals new insights at the impression of recent principles of nationalism, race, and faith in East Asia.After the autumn of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the chinese language Nationalists, with out the conventional non secular authority of the Manchu Emperor, promoted nationalism and racial cohesion with a view to win aid between Tibetans. as soon as this failed, chinese language politicians appealed to a shared Buddhist historical past. This shift in coverage mirrored the late-nineteenth-century educational proposal of Buddhism as a unified international faith, instead of a collection of competing and numerous Asian spiritual practices. whereas chinese language politicians was hoping to realize Tibetan loyalty via faith, the advertising of a shared Buddhist history allowed chinese language Buddhists and Tibetan political and non secular leaders to pursue their pursuits. in the course of the Thirties and Nineteen Forties, Tibetan Buddhist principles and lecturers loved great reputation inside a extensive spectrum of chinese language society and particularly between marginalized chinese language Buddhists. even if relationships among the elite management among the 2 countries broke down, non secular and cultural connections remained robust. After the Communists seized keep watch over, they persevered to use this hyperlink whilst exerting regulate over Tibet via strength within the Fifties. And regardless of being an avowedly atheist regime, aside from the Cultural Revolution, the chinese language communist executive has endured to acknowledge and aid many components of Tibetan spiritual, if no longer political, culture.Tuttle's examine explores the function of Buddhism within the formation of contemporary China and its courting to Tibet throughout the lives of Tibetan and chinese language Buddhists and politicians and through drawing on formerly unexamined archival and governmental fabrics, in addition to own memoirs of chinese language politicians and Buddhist priests, and ephemera from spiritual ceremonies. (vol. 33 2005)
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Extra resources for Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China
For example, the civil service examination system was unknown in Tibet, and reincarnation was certainly not an acceptable way to transfer power in China. The Tibetan elites accepted a sufficient amount of bureaucratic supervision to satisfy the Qing imperial rulers, and in turn the Qing imperial rulers accepted and supported Tibetan Buddhism sufficiently to convince the Tibetans of their genuine support and interest. However, the Qing imperial institutions deliberately rested very lightly on Tibet.
At the same time the Chinese envoy Huang Musong was sent to Tibet with four hundred thousand silver dollars to make religious offerings. Having participated in Tibetan Buddhist rituals in China, he was aware of the central importance of religion to the Tibetans. He followed Buddhist protocol by prostrating himself at the principal religious shrines and distributing cash to twenty thousand monks in Lhasa. He also gave assurances to the Tibetan government that China would respect and support Tibetan Buddhism and preserve the political system that maintained the monasteries if the Tibetan government would acknowledge that Tibet was a part of China.
In general, vacancies for the position of the Mount Wutai jasagh lama were to be filled by a khenpo (Ch. kanbu) sent from Tibet to the capital. 33 Other specific references to the succeeding generations of jasagh lamas are difficult to come by until the mid-twentieth century when these lamas were again to prove essential in communications between China and Tibet. Once the Qing government extended its power into Tibetan regions in Qinghai and Central Tibet in the eighteenth century, an entirely new group of lamas born on the borderlands between the two countries served as intermediaries between the court and Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China by Gray Tuttle