Gerhard Roth's The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds PDF

By Gerhard Roth

ISBN-10: 9400762585

ISBN-13: 9789400762589

ISBN-10: 9400762593

ISBN-13: 9789400762596

The major subject of the publication is a reconstruction of the evolution of apprehensive platforms and brains in addition to of mental-cognitive skills, in brief “intelligence” from least difficult organisms to people. It investigates to which quantity the 2 are correlated. One significant subject is the alleged forte of the human mind and human intelligence and brain. it truly is mentioned which neural positive factors verify animals and people clever and artistic: Is it absolute or relative mind dimension or the dimensions of “intelligence facilities” contained in the brains, the variety of nerve cells contained in the mind in overall or in such “intelligence facilities” decisive for the measure of intelligence, of brain and at last recognition? And that are the using forces at the back of those tactics? ultimately, it truly is requested what all this implies for the classical challenge of mind-brain dating and for a naturalistic idea of mind.

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While at first such fossils were interpreted as ‘‘monstrosities’’ of existing forms, more and more of them appeared rather normal, and this meant that many thousands or even millions of years ago forms of animals resembling the existing ones must have existed but became extinct. Because some of them were found in deeper and older, and others in upper and more recent geological strata, they could not all have existed at the same time. However, the question remained whether forms of organisms developed independently of each other constituting separate lines of evolution, or developed in a family- or tree-like fashion based on common ancestry.

Unobservable) cause by which the adaptedness is explained. This is a classic ‘‘petitio principii’’: a hypothetic factor concluded from an observed phenomenon is turned into the explanatory factor for that phenomenon. ’’ If this selective pressure is unknown, it cannot serve for an explanation of adaptedness. Adaptation to the environment, which cannot be denied as a phenomenon particularly in the morphology and function of sense organs (cf. Chap. 11), may have come up by several processes. The first is Darwinian natural selection: there is genetic and phenotypic variation, and the carriers of certain traits have greater reproductive success; in this way, genetic changes become fixed in a population.

For this, it is necessary to confront such diverse animals as honeybees, octopuses, crows, elephants, or macaque monkeys with complex tasks that humans can solve only while being fully aware or conscious. , pressing a button whenever a certain shape reappears. Chimpanzees can be taught to ‘‘mentally’’ find a way out of a maze by following possible tracks with the gaze. Birds can be trained to select an object in order to use it as a tool (cf. Chap. 12). It is, of course, important to exclude alternative ways of interpretation, such as unconscious conditioning or pure chance.

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The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds by Gerhard Roth

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