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Extra info for The Cherokees: A Population History
What makes a person an Indian? Is it ancestry, enrollment, culture, or self-image? Many people whose names do not appear on the rolls of federally recognized tribes find satisfaction in defining themselves as Indian, but the material benefits that accrue to those who are officially enrolled make the issue a sensitive one for native peoples and for the United States government. Who decides legitimacyindividuals, Indian tribes, the states, or the federal government? In The Cherokees: A Population History, Russell Thornton narrows the focus to a single people, the Cherokees, and demonstrates how a changing population has made defining Cherokee very difficult.
And Malone (1956:6) asserted that the first trader to live in Cherokee country may have been Eleazar Wiggan, noted to be there in 1711. It thus seems unlikely that extensive trade between the Cherokees and the Europeans had been established as early as 1690. In any event, by about the end of the century trade relations between the Cherokees and the Europeans were established, perhaps in 1698 by William and Joseph Cooper (Reid 1976:37). The Cherokees exchanged deerskins and other commodities, including some Indian slaves (Thomas 1903:96; Perdue 1979:19), for firearms and ammunition, hatchets, metal tools and kettles, decorations, cloth, salt, and rum.
1000, as reflected in three early archaeological phases, primarily based on mound construction and ceramic forms: Early Etowah, Hiwassee Island, and Early Pisgah. According to Roy S. Dickens, Jr. (1979:12, fig. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. 1650). These lines continued to well into the 1800s, Dickens argued, reflected in (as I discuss in chaps. 2 and 3) three Cherokee divisions at that time: Lower Cherokee, Over-hill Cherokee, and Middle Cherokee (Dickens 1979:12, fig. 3, 28; also Dickens 1976; Keel 1976).
The Cherokees: A Population History by Russell Thornton