Read e-book online The Cambridge Economic History of Europe from the Decline of PDF
By Edward Miller, Cynthia Postan, M. M. Postan
The second one quantity of The Cambridge monetary heritage of Europe, first released in 1952, used to be a survey by means of a world workforce of expert students protecting alternate and in pre-Roman, Roman and Byzantine Europe, the medieval exchange of northern and southern Europe, and the histories of medieval woollen manufacture, mining and metallurgy, and construction in stone. This moment variation, as well as revising so much chapters and the bibliographies appended to them, additionally fills gaps which arose from the wartime and post-war situations within which the 1st variation was once written. New chapters offer bills of the exchange and of japanese Europe, of medieval Europe's alternate with Asia and Africa, and of medieval coinage and forex. involved in volumes I and III of the sequence, this quantity is designed to accomplish a entire overview of the commercial heritage of medieval Europe as an entire. It used to be deliberate by way of the past due Sir Michael Postan, and used to be mostly accomplished below his editorship.
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Additional info for The Cambridge Economic History of Europe from the Decline of the Roman Empire, Volume 2: Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages
Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 24 TRADE AND INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE AGES Ukraine to the Paris basin in one direction and from Iran to the Hwang-Ho in another. Within the space of little more than two or three hundred years the Danubian peasants had multiplied and proliferated their villages along the whole loess chain to the coasts of the North Sea. Over the same period other very similar communities, using closely similar economic strategies, dispersed eastwards from northern Iran into north-western China.
Gimbutas, The Baits (London, 1963); Piggott, Ancient Europe, chap. 3; A. C. ), The Explanation of Cultural Change (London, 1972). Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 28 TRADE AND INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE AGES rare in middle and northern Europe until the Alpine Saxo-Thuringian and Bohemian lodes were opened up, after c. I9 An innovation with far more extensive repercussions also spread through the same areas about the same time — the ard, or simple plough. Between c. C. the ard widely replaced the hoe as the primary agricultural tool of the peasant farmers of Europe, rapidly transforming the amount of land one man could bring under cultivation, increasing the demand for land and the surplus from it, and revolutionising attitudes towards land, property, inheritance and kinship obligations.
The three-sided equilibrium triangle ofthe gatherer-hunter-fisher economies was now a stabilised polygon with fresh agrarian resource dimensions and a capacity for the territorially dense occupation of long-term settlement sites producing an annual food surplus. , perhaps earlier in places, the first definite traces of agrarian settlers are found in Europe. These settlements are restricted to the Balkan Mediterranean zone immediately adjacent to Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 2O TRADE A N D I N D U S T R Y IN THE MIDDLE AGES the Anatolian plateau and tightly confined to the ecological niches already occupied by the wild prototypes of the new domesticates; it is even possible that the territories of this area were fully within the zone of primary developments but this has yet to be demonstrated.
The Cambridge Economic History of Europe from the Decline of the Roman Empire, Volume 2: Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages by Edward Miller, Cynthia Postan, M. M. Postan