Download e-book for iPad: The archaeology of Navajo origins by Ronald H. Towner

By Ronald H. Towner

ISBN-10: 0874805007

ISBN-13: 9780874805000

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Extra info for The archaeology of Navajo origins

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We must also remember that no ethnic group can be considered in isolation, particularly during the protohistoric. Groups interacted with each other in complex ways, and some groups became virtual "melting pots" for displaced people, refugees, and once discrete groups who were absorbed by dominant groups. In southern New Mexico, west Texas, and northern Chihuahua, for example, a wide array of distinct ethnic groups such as the Suma, Chinarra, Jano, and Jocome were absorbed by the Apache during the eighteenth century (Di Peso 1985; Griffen 1979).

After the newly independent Mexican government assumed control of New Mexico, hostilities were an almost constant threat. The Viscarra campaign of 1823 resulted in at least seven Navajo deaths and the capture of seventeen others (Brugge 1964). Additional major campaigns by the Pérez government in 1837 and Armijo in 1839 resulted in the loss of Navajo lives and disrupted the Navajo herding economy, especially in the Canyon de Chelly area (McNitt 1972). When the United States gained control of New Mexico in 1846, Kearny's Army of the West began hostilities against the Navajo after a brief period of diplomacy failed (Connelly 1907).

A few years later, in 1786, the Navajo were said to consist of five geographic divisions: San Mateo, Cebolleta, Chuska Mountain, Ojo del Oso, and Canyon de Chelly (Bartlett 1932). By the end of the eighteenth century, ten divisions were recognized: Sevolleta, Chacoli, Guadalupe, Cerro Cabezon, Agua Salada, Cerro Chato, Chusca, Tunicha, Chella, and Carrizo (Matson and Schroeder 1957). The nineteenth century was a time of dramatic change in world affairs that slowly but surely impacted the Navajo.

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The archaeology of Navajo origins by Ronald H. Towner

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