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History 1

By L A Reynolds, E M Tansey (Editors)

ISBN-10: 0854841148

ISBN-13: 9780854841141

As a result of its special adaptability and resistance to many antibacterial medicines and antiseptics, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial threat of the current day. It has invaded scientific and surgical wards in hospitals, infecting sufferers already in poor health or convalescing, and endangering fresh surgical operations, inspired through overcrowding and restricted air movement. It has now unfold from hospitals to households and groups. an infection keep an eye on microbiologists and the general public wellbeing and fitness Laboratory provider constructed assays, 'phage typing and different checks to spot traces, with greater knowing in their behaviour aided by means of the invention of the mecA gene. This Seminar addressed the organic purposes for this behaviour; the variation among resistant and non-resistant lines; the advance, evolution and elucidation of drug resistance in clinic an infection and its geographical distribution. steered through Professor Gordon Stewart and chaired by means of Dr Robert Bud, surgeons, microbiologists, an infection keep watch over specialists and representatives of the pharmaceutical and of the general public integrated: Professor Graham Ayliffe, Professor Mark Casewell, Dr Bilwanath Chattopadhyay, Dr Stephanie Dancer, Dr Bernard Dixon, Dr Georgia Duckworth, Professor Brian Duerden, Professor Michael Emmerson, Professor Gary French, Professor Curtis Gemmell, Professor Alan Glynn, Dr Ian Gould, Professor David Greenwood, Professor Jeremy Hamilton-Miller, Dr Angela Kearns, Dr invoice Newsom, Professor Ian Phillips, Dr Tyrone Pitt, Dr Elizabeth expense, Professor Sir Mark Richmond, Dr Geoffrey Scott, Dr Joe Selkon, Dr David Shanson, Dr Norman Simmons, Professor Dale Smith, Professor Brian Spratt, Dr Robert Sutherland, Professor John West.

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I think that may be why our eyes were off the ball, so to speak, round about the mid-1960s. 45 Eventually I trawled 15 isolates between 1961, when our collection started, and 1963 when I did the investigation. The interesting thing is that we had missed all of them in our ordinary susceptibility testing, which again prompts me to wonder whether, say, the original Beecham screens on staphylococci had missed isolates as did Patricia Jevons’. So, we had missed them in the laboratory. But interestingly, we had also missed them clinically, so there was never any question from the clinicians that what was being used was failing.

Note on draft transcript, 4 December 2007. 36 Stewart et al. (1960). 37 Douthwaite and Trafford (1960). See Figure 4. ’ Note on draft transcript, 1 December 2007. Professor Gordon Stewart wrote: ‘I worked closely with Dr John Farquharson, an organic chemist who was the first Director of Research at Beecham’s. We knew that we were handling derivatives of 6-APA with insertions of amino- and methyl-groups which altered antimicrobial activity. The formula for BRL1241, methicillin, was divulged to me in confidence after we had used it to arrest an MRSA septicaemia in December 1959.

First, we have had Gordon Stewart telling us about a major outbreak, while a number of us have commented that we missed the thing as it went by. We were conscious of no cross-infection, and, indeed, of no particular clinical problem. 76 I think we, too, ought to be careful when we are talking about virulence and a property that I have tried to call ‘epidemigenicity’. It isn’t virulence, it’s the ability to spread, and I think it’s important to distinguish [the two]. I think those early strains were no more virulent than any other staphylococcus.

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Superbugs and Superdrugs, A History of MRSA (Wellcome Witnesses to Twentieth Century Medicine Vol 32) by L A Reynolds, E M Tansey (Editors)

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