's Science after the Practice Turn in the Philosophy, History, PDF


ISBN-10: 0415722950

ISBN-13: 9780415722957

Reviewed by way of Alfred Nordmann, Technische Universität Darmstadt
Does an individual have in mind the time earlier than the perform flip within the philosophy of technology? Did social stories of technology even exist earlier than that flip? those beginning questions sound polemical yet usually are not to decrease, purely to intensify, a powerful selection of essays, every one with a considerate reaction. it's a regular this present day and a largely shared dedication to check technological know-how no longer within the summary yet in perform. hence, it's not effortless to call the instant whilst the flip to perform happened, and it really is worthy asking what got here prior to to warrant this turn.1

The editors in addition to the individuals to this quantity are good conscious of the trouble of defining a unmarried second and suggest to talk of “practice trends” as a substitute (p. 3). the trouble is due partly to a pressure among traces of assault that may be linked to the “practice turn”:

I.   Many philosophers should not all in favour of what scientists really do yet are likely to mistake the scientists’ rational reconstructions for what they really did.

II.  Philosophers learn technology as drawn to idea, fact, propositions, or representations of the realm, thereby underestimating experimentation, intervention, and the technical transformation of the world.

One may be hard-pressed to discover the philosophers, historians, and social scientists who're accountable as charged at the first count number. The pre-Kuhnian philosophers of technology who promoted a wissenschaftliche Weltanschauung or demarcation standards for technology wouldn't mistake their normative firm for the outline of exact examine perform — and this allowed them to pursue a socially proper philosophy of technological know-how that significantly engaged perform in technological know-how and society. even if “rational reconstruction” used to be the secret (1960s to 1980s), it used to be an try to clarify the particular perform of formulating and justifying hypotheses when it comes to theories of medical rationality. this may recommend that the perform flip is composed basically in leaving behind theories of perform. Is it the dismissal of conception, then, that debts for the “practice” in “practice turn”? Hasok Chang’s contribution, particularly, will serve less than as a trying out flooring for this characterization. Does piecemeal description of neighborhood systems and techniques take where even of middle-range theorizing? That this holds additionally for social reports of technology should be obvious within the dialogue of Michael Lynch’s contribution.

As for the opposite line of assault, there are an exceptional many practitioners of the perform flip who're themselves in charge as charged. Following Ian Hacking, they examine the perform of theorizing and of representing the realm. whereas they have fun with the position of tools and experiments, they regard technological interventions as a way to the unquestioned target of science,:theory and representation.2 The label “constructivism,” largely conceived, designates their practice-oriented causes, the place the explanandum is, because it regularly was once, the contract among thought and reality.3 That leaves just a minority of philosophers of clinical perform who take the second one cost extra heavily. they think about technological know-how as a expertise in its personal correct and think about theories and versions as a way within the pursuit of buying and demonstrating features of keep watch over. hence, whilst philosophers of technology discover that popular notions like illustration, clarification, or lawfulness have to be reconceived in mild of perform, are they nonetheless trying to healthy those notions right into a notion of technological know-how because the pursuit of conception and truth, or are they reconceiving additionally the very notion of medical wisdom construction? This quandary is mirrored in Andrea Woody’s and Joseph Rouse’s contributions.4

Might this be the a bit sobering upshot of the perform flip — if we take it within the experience of (I), it's indiscernible aside from its aversion to theorize clinical perform, and if we take it within the feel of (II) it's for the main half an unfulfilled promise?


The first declare is that instead of recognize, eventually, what scientists really do, the perform flip refrains from theorizing what scientists truly do. firstly look, Hasok Chang’s contribution contradicts this declare. It bargains the outlines for “a philosophical grammar of clinical practice” that situates epistemic actions inside of structures of perform. Commenting on his paper, Léna Soler and Régis Catinaud supply an in depth critique that demanding situations Chang’s declare that his idea constitutes “a dependent and unique philosophical framework for considering and speaking approximately clinical practices” (pp. sixty seven, 80-92). even if, Chang and his critics may be speaking earlier one another: what recommends Chang’s suggestion is exactly that it's so very ordinary, that it's a framework for pondering and conversing instead of a considerable idea of perform in any respect. His grammar assumes that activities are orientated in the direction of reasons, features, and goals, and they search coherence of operations, principles, and goals within the live performance of a number of actions. this can be intended to right anemic conceptions of rational actors in analytic philosophy, and by way of an analogous token it doesn't upload to extant grammars of action-talk, to John Dewey’s idea of inquiry, or to techniques from cognitive psychology akin to Howard Gruber’s “networks of enterprise.”5 It takes paintings to take care of, jointly, a procedure of job — and the upkeep of such platforms will be a spotlight of research for the philosophy of medical perform, no longer not like the examine after Kuhn and Lakatos of paradigms and learn programmes, and never not like actor-network-theory.

Chang’s grammar of clinical perform therefore deals one among numerous how one can symbolize epistemic actions as significant by way of their inherent reasons, their exterior services, and the goals in their method of perform. both vital, even though, is what it doesn't do: it doesn't declare to be a fantastic manner of representing perform, it doesn't promise that categorical positive factors of perform come into sight that may in a different way stay vague, and as a framework for representing the epistemic perform of all medical knowledge-production, it doesn't distinguish among varieties of wisdom. certainly, it's a energy and weak point right now of Chang’s suggestion that it seeks to incorporate up to attainable lower than the heading of “epistemic activity.” He defines it as a “set of psychological and actual operations which are meant to give a contribution to the creation or development of knowledge” yet leaves open no matter if “knowledge” takes the shape of theories or that of sensible advances in soda manufacture (pp. seventy two and 74).6

To be certain, it's demanding to attract a line among a framework for representing perform and a significant conception of perform that seeks to provide an explanation for or review how scientists act. applicants for the latter will be logical empiricist conceptions that reject as metaphysical any connection with the intentions of scientists or the telos of the medical company. Marxist sociology of technological know-how, which ready for the Edinburgh school’s sociology of clinical wisdom, may possibly function one other instance, as does pragmatism with its emphasis at the doubt-belief dynamic and the answer of clash that lends coherence to any technique of inquiry. If the analytic philosopher’s perception of organisation is anemic compared to Chang’s, Chang’s structures of perform are anemic compared to any of these.

One may also figure a real concept of clinical perform in Robert okay. Merton’s sociology of technology, which for a very long time served as poster-child for a belief of technology that supposedly disregards what scientists truly do. This accusation refers to his id of an ethos of technology that integrated the norms of communism, universalism, disinterestedness, and arranged skepticism.7 The supposition of those norms looked as if it would clash with the truth that many scientists have an interest instead of disinterested, for instance. And instead of undergo the concept there isn't any own highbrow estate in technological know-how, many scientists declare possession. Merton’s chic snapshot of a fantastic group looks to evaporate in disagreement with the evidence of the problem. however the relatively simplistic flip to perform because the summing up of what humans really do, misses out at the complex cloth of perform and, particularly, at the practice-relevant tensions among an internalized ethos and the practical standards of a rôle.8 Following Max Weber, Merton first studied how the very thought of technology as a vocation was once deeply infused with a Protestant ethic.9 And after elaborating the ethos of technology, he went directly to examine the conflicts in perform among those norms and the necessity for attractiveness, for instance, in disputes in regards to the precedence of discoveries.10 And following on Weber and Merton, Steven Shapin has investigated the profound transformation in recent times of the pro ethos of the scientist.11 Shapin hence presses the difficulty of ways to conceive the function of technological know-how and scientists in modern society — and hence a question crucial to the perform of technological know-how, which doesn't hinge upon what scientists truly do within the laboratory. while Merton and Shapin distinction a Protestant and entrepreneurial ethos of technology as a vocation, they articulate the normative theories of motion that scientists truly use to symbolize what they really do as conforming to or violating those norms.

In “From Normative to Descriptive and Back,” Michel Lynch produces an illuminating distinction to this dialogue. He situates it by way of additionally elevating the query of what occurred within the perform flip to theories of technology and of the scientist. targeting the claims through Harry Collins and Robert Evans that services derives from exams of tacit wisdom, Lynch invitations the reader to contemplate normative vs. descriptive techniques at the one hand, and theory-based vs. descriptive methods at the different. Collins and Evans take a normative stance. this can be as a result of the contested query of who may perhaps count number as knowledgeable and who may well hence imagine a place of strength particularly contexts of deliberation. this isn't a impartial query and consequently, in keeping with Lynch, “STS examine could lead on us to the purpose the place we take normative positions which are embedded in or directed in the direction of the settings less than study” (p. 111). Collins and Evans flooring their stance in a conception of tacit wisdom that offers services approximately services and permits technology stories researchers to spot actors who own the necessary type of interactional expertise.

Lynch doesn't associate with their declare (p. 107), nor with their basic thought that the normative claims of STS could be grounded through relocating again from being descriptive to being theory-based back. “STS learn could lead on us . . . to take normative positions . . . yet those positions are usually not grounded in generalized STS options, typologies, or theories” (p. 111). merely through gaining, via description, “an intimate knowing of the practices studied” may STS learn suppose a normative stance (p. 111). For the perform flip, in different phrases, there is not any as far back as a Mertonian first wave of technology reports. The go back to a theory-based normativity is blocked no longer simply because medical perform might be accounted for under descriptively, yet since it is tough, if no longer most unlikely for the severe pastime of technological know-how reviews to say for itself the prestige of a technological know-how with services approximately services. in accordance with Lynch, the matter is with Collins and Evans looking to settle the query in their actual services approximately services “by themselves at the foundation in their analytical judgments” while the perform flip might call for that they depart this query “open to selection by way of individuals and strategies within the associations that social scientists investigate” (p. 105).


The perform flip presents intimate figuring out of particular structures of perform. instead of emphatically studying perform that has formerly been neglected, it truly is for strong purposes averse to conception and the messy company of reconciling theories of technology with descriptions of particular real practice.12 And but, there's cause to fret that this flip to perform continues to be unaware of technological know-how as perform through taking a truly superficial view of epistemic actions and what it capacity “to give a contribution to the construction or development of knowledge” (p. 72). within the chapters via Andrea Woody and Joseph Rouse, it is easy to witness the level to which even the main reflective advocates of the perform flip are bewitched by way of a picture of technology that holds them captive.

Woody’s “Chemistry’s Periodic legislations: Rethinking illustration and rationalization After the flip to Practice” starts off with Ian Hacking’s Representing and Intervening and exhibits how a lot paintings has to be performed from the place Hacking leaves off. Hacking’s experimental realism, Woody argues, entrenched a dualism among concept and scan: “Whereas scan was once conceptualized as perform, conception basically was once not” (p. 124, evaluate p. 9). This then exhibits the path for extra learn, particularly to teach how conception may be conceptualized as perform, her for instance being chemistry’s periodic desk. She then works out persuasively how the periodic desk works in contexts of illustration and rationalization. ultimately, she establishes that her drawback with the perform of thought makes a contribution to the perform turn.

All of this can be compelling, and but her line of reasoning leaves unquestioned one other quandary of Hacking’s procedure, and conceivably, via wondering this restrict to boot, she may need arrived at a much less strained or even extra compelling account of the periodic desk as chemical perform. The unquestioned obstacle of Hacking’s ebook turns into discernible while one amends Woody’s succinct synopsis: while Hacking provides experimentation as an interventionist perform of illustration, he considers theoretical illustration as conceptual — and whereas entrenching hence a dualism among thought and scan, he additionally holds quickly to the conventional view that expertise is precisely subservient to the only target of technological know-how, specifically to symbolize solid beneficial properties of the area, even if when it comes to conception or in an comprehensive experimental set-up. Hacking’s unique success was once to set up that not only theories but in addition experiments offer clinical representations of phenomena.13 yet definitely, a flip to technology as perform won't restrict experimental perform to its representational functionality. to the contrary, it is going to take Hacking’s slogan that “experiments have a lifetime of their own” to now comprise in the epistemic actions of technological know-how the creation and development of operating wisdom, that's, of data of the ways that issues will be made to do paintings. rather than representational wisdom, operating wisdom doesn't consist in statements in regards to the global yet is established in terms of powerful services for placing issues to work.14

How may possibly such an perception tell Woody’s dialogue of the periodic desk? it will ease the weight of desiring to house her account of the periodic desk inside roughly got notions of illustration, rationalization, and lawfulness, starting up in its place new avenues of realizing the periodic desk as a device for chemical motion. The perceived have to by some means reconcile the periodic desk with the supposedly unique objective of technology to supply representations comes throughout in formulations like this: “If we think there's something essentially certain approximately illustration in technology, why suppose that it's positioned within the representing relation itself instead of within the concrete social practices of illustration cultivated by means of clinical communities?” (p. 146) The sentence’s commencing “if we believe” means that one will be at an advantage now not believing this. because it stands, besides the fact that, the consequent account of the concrete social practices of illustration overtaxes the thought of “representation”: the periodic desk represents in non-propositional shape positive factors of the realm (periodicity, particular information regarding the elements), it represents family members of similarity and distinction when it comes to actual proximity and distance, it represents probabilities of motion, e.g., by means of predicting houses and the life of recent components, it represents styles as being strong, it represents offerings approximately modes of visualization. the following, it'd be extra effective to argue that the strictly representational gains of the periodic desk summarize propositional wisdom approximately chemical components, while its presentational positive factors produce an artefactual wisdom that enables operating with chemical stuff. sorts of clinical wisdom creation therefore come jointly, because the periodic desk refers not just to the fundamental components from which all present issues are composed, yet as a toolbox for the construction of novelty refers additionally to what issues could turn into: “cancer medicinal drugs, loved ones plastics, agricultural insecticides, and nanoparticle-laced sunscreens” (p. 144)15

Viewing the creation of representational wisdom as just one kind of medical wisdom creation opens the door for interpreting the periodic desk as chemical operating wisdom. And as soon as replacement conceptions of epistemic task can be found, generic epistemic different types tackle diversified meanings. What it capability to appreciate anything, to monitor, to scan, or to provide an explanation for is varied for the creation of representational rationalization and for the creation of operating wisdom. Propositional and representational factors, for instance, convey phenomenon happens as an issue in fact or situate it inside a conceptual order. by contrast, the power to recreate or rebuild a phenomenon in a simulation version can be explanatory insofar because it is indicative of getting operating wisdom of the dynamic that produces that phenomenon. alongside such strains Woody proposes that the periodic desk is explanatory when it comes to offering a “functional perspective” that orients the self-discipline and prerequisites reasoning in the direction of the construction of novelty (p. 144).16

Woody units out to teach how conception might be conceptualized as perform and in doing so takes care to maintain in position all of the average gains of a systematic concept that will be lawful, that includes illustration and helps rationalization. despite the fact that, while articulating those notions for the periodic desk as chemical perform, she must extend or adjust their unique that means, hence working up opposed to the constraints imposed by means of conceptions of epistemic task and platforms of perform as orientated solely to the purpose of illustration. through working up opposed to a view of technology as attracted to conception, fact, propositions, or representations of the area, Woody exhibits that it calls for a non-trivial attempt to show clear of this view and towards one other view of technology as a technological perform that establishes easy features of intervention, manipulation, visualization, modelling, or demonstrating what issues can do.


The perform flip attends to what scientists really do. yet what's it that scientists do after they keep on with their workouts within the laboratory, organize samples, practice an scan, checklist observations, create a working laptop or computer version, collate and post their findings? they may be doing all this and we nonetheless don't know whether or not they are checking out a speculation or increasing their functions of keep an eye on, or either — and we additionally don't know whether or not they are utilizing expertise as a device to enhance their theories, or whether or not they are utilizing theories as instruments to additional their technological achieve. If what scientists truly do unfolds inside various platforms of perform with diversified epistemic actions to supply other kinds of data, the query is not any longer what scientists truly do yet what scientists are.

It is right here that the book’s name calls for unique discover. technology After the perform flip means that technology itself can have replaced in the course of these previous couple of many years that still witnessed the perform flip within the philosophy of technological know-how. And certainly, one may perhaps suspect a typical reason for brand new conceptions of what scientists are and new methods of learning what scientists do: technological know-how stories debunks legendary perspectives of technology and attends to practices and methods in the course of a time while technological know-how takes on ever extra overtly the function of driving force of technological innovation instead of leading edge of Enlightenment principles. hence, what technological know-how is could swap no longer simply because practices switch yet since it is valued otherwise as a cultural establishment — just like the way in which that the which means of paintings has changed.

In the penultimate bankruptcy, Joseph Rouse takes at the problem displaying how the perform flip has replaced what we suggest via technological know-how. He exhibits that technological know-how doesn't simply function inside of a definite area of interest during which specific criteria of argument and facts carry, yet the way it constructs that area of interest. The perform flip takes a naturalist method of clinical area of interest creation; it really is therefore a technology of technology. Rouse’s view differs sharply from Chang’s in that the intentionality of epistemic task takes a backseat: “Even although clinical recommendations and theories goal to is sensible of the area as we discover it, their proximate program is usually to the realm as we make it” (p. 281). technological know-how offers conceptual figuring out and never operating wisdom, yet rather than serving the purpose of illustration, conceptual realizing permits us to inhabit an international of our making. The perform flip provides a naturalistic viewpoint in this kind of habitation. by means of situating knowing inside a organic context (p. 289), Rouse therefore reframes the bought view of technological know-how with its highbrow perception of only one type of epistemic activity.

I have argued that the perform flip will be meaningless if it basically fetishized “what scientists really do.” Implicitly or explicitly, Chang’s formal grammar of practices turns into instantiated if now not via theories then at the least via mammoth conceptions of medical perform. with no them you can still now not see what scientists are doing once they are doing whatever. yet as soon as one starts filling within the empty formalism of epistemic-activity-in-a-system-of-practice, one encounters choices: in gentle of Shapin’s research, will we characteristic to a neighborhood of study execs a Weberian or Mertonian proposal of technology as a vocation? Are a few specific researchers of their lab utilizing expertise to supply an empirically sufficient theoretical description, or are they utilizing on hand thought to increase their technological achieve and bring operating wisdom within the type of an evidence of notion? Or we could abandon Chang’s framework of intentional epistemic job altogether and ask, as an alternative, how these specific researchers of their lab are making a area of interest within which they could reproduce the lifestyle that's formed via their conceptual paintings? what's at stake with a majority of these questions isn't really what scientists do yet no matter if their perform is highbrow or technological.

1 There are feedback that the perform flip will be traced again the entire solution to Kuhn (pp. five and forty two) — with few philosophers of technological know-how operating this present day whose education was once untouched through the final post-Kuhnian dedication to historical past of technology, the research of case experiences, and a spotlight at the specified sciences.

2 Hacking’s Representing and Intervening is frequently brought up because the publication that began the perform flip. yet his “philosophy of medical experimentation” or “New Experimentalism” continues to be dedicated to illustration because the objective of technological know-how, with expertise subservient to this aim. of their advent, the editors recognize this hindrance and explicitly search to push Hacking additional than he used to be keen to head on the time (p. 22).

3 See the editors’ creation and Michael Lynch’s perceptive evaluate (pp. thirteen and 96). Of the entire theoretical debates that knowledgeable the clash among philosophy of technology and the sociology of medical wisdom (SSK) within the Nineteen Eighties, just a vaguely construed “(social) constructivism” survived the “mangle of practice” and emerged because the label for an a-theoretical conception of technological know-how. even though, “constructivism” besides “realism,” “idealism,” and “instrumentalism” is just one between a number of theories competing to give an explanation for obvious medical achievements of contract among thought and fact. open air this explanatory context the inspiration of “constructivism” fails to do any work.

4 I express regret to Jean-Michel Salanskis, Hanne Andersen, Louis Bucciarelli and Peter Kroes, Jean Paul van Bendegem, and Karine Chemla for neglecting to debate their contributions, which light up particular dimensions of the perform turn.

5 Howard Gruber “Networks of company in artistic clinical work,” in B. Gholson, W.R. Shadish, R.A. Neimeyer, A.C. Houts (eds.) Psychology of technological know-how, Cambridge: Cambridge college Press, 1989, pp. 246-266. Chang’s concluding assertion applies both to Dewey’s idea of inquiry, other than that Dewey brings within the richer inspiration of expertise: “When the ‘practice turn’ in technological know-how reviews well-known technological know-how as perform, we got here to acknowledge extra in actual fact the continuity among technology and the remainder of life” (p. 77).

6 Chang lightly insinuates on p. seventy four that many clinical groups are this day held jointly by means of the inherent goal of looking realizing whereas, at the same time, pleasurable the exterior functionality of making invaluable issues. This, to be certain, will be an example of learning no longer what scientists truly do yet believing at face worth what scientists usually say they do.

7 Robert okay. Merton, “The Normative constitution of Science,” in R.K. Merton, The Sociology of technology: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, Chicago: Chicago college Press, 1973, pp. 267-278.

8 to ensure, Chang’s a-theoretical grammar of practices supplies a framework for bills like Merton’s, specifically as regards the problems of holding coherence among inherent reasons and exterior functions.

9 Robert ok. Merton “Science, expertise and Society in 17th Century England”, Osiris, Vol. IV, pt. 2, 1938, pp. 360-632. 

10 Merton, “The Ambivalence of Scientists,” within the Sociology of technology, pp. 383-412. After appreciating Merton’s realizing of the discrepancy among medical perform and its rational reconstructions, Lynch however is going directly to declare that Merton “did now not undertaking to explain real perform in shut detail” (pp. 101f.). this means that we don't realize anymore within the paper on scientists’ dealing with of ambivalence a detailed description of medical practice.

11 Steven Shapin, The medical existence: an ethical background of a overdue glossy Vocation, Chicago: collage of Chicago Press, 2008.

12 the nice purposes are self-exemplifying. STS students draw back from subsuming perform lower than concept simply because subsumption is a systematic perform that should be problematized. In a equally self-exemplifying demeanour the philosophical discussions of versions and modelling in technological know-how are much less afraid to take on these problems. although operating with common money owed of modelling, they could hardly ever be accused of ignoring what scientists truly do in particular structures of perform. versions are mediators, in the end, and what really occurs is neither lowered nor flattened out simply because it's being relating to theory.

13 What was once considered the specific area of idea in technology is now additionally in the clutch — unaided through thought — of scan. yet Hacking paid a substantial rate for conceiving of experimentation as a sort of illustration. His imagined situation of early people engaged in illustration even ahead of they'd language explicitly excludes that homo faber may carve a sculpture for reasons of formality, yet recognizes merely homo depictor who creates a likeness. See Ian Hacking, Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: Cambridge college Press, 1983, p. 135.

14 This allusion to operating wisdom can in basic terms point out a common path of analysis within the philosophy of technoscience. See Alfred Nordmann “Object classes: in the direction of an epistemology of technoscience,” scientia studiae: Revista Latino-Americana de Filosofia e História da Ciência, vol. 10, particular factor, 2012, pp. 11-31.

15 to be certain, the next suggestion is well-meaning at most sensible by means of indicating how existence should be more uncomplicated if one abandons the concept that clinical wisdom creation goals solely for representations of the realm. it truly is one other query fullyyt no matter if, for instance, the advised juxtaposition of representational and presentational gains is enough for realizing the heritage of the periodic table.

16 equally, Woody argues for the law-like prestige of the periodic desk via moving the that means of lawfulness to incorporate “the normative prestige of the generalization, earned via its application in practice” (p. 148)

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Rouse then develops his alternative naturalistic account of scientific understanding, in contrast to traditional, pre-practice turn perspectives on science. According to this account, the practice turn teaches us that “sciences are first and foremost research enterprises”, and the corresponding kind of research enterprise is conceptualized by Rouse as “a distinctive form of [biological] niche construction”. In such framework, scientific understanding is conceived as an open-ended evolutionary process of extension and reconfiguration of a complex space, a process through which humans transform their environment, and are themselves transformed, in unpredictable ways.

In this purpose, he exploits critically and creatively the proposals of some notable predecessors (Fleck, Polanyi, Kuhn, Lakatos, Dewey, Hacking, Pickering, Gooding, Rheinberger, and others). ). Elsewhere, Chang has developed his framework for activity-based analysis, and tested its fruitfulness in relation to detailed analyses of episodes in the history of chemistry, including the Chemical Revolution (Chang, 2012). Here, Chang offers a more systematic characterization of the framework. The framework consists of several hierarchical, interrelated levels of what Soler and Catinaud call, in their commentary on Chang’s chapter, “actiontype units”, each unit of action being associated with an “inherent aim”.

Failing to identify the fraud of a collaborator is therefore an epistemic fault, not a moral one. 6. Chapter 6. Values in Engineering: From Object Worlds to Socio-Technical Systems, by Louis Bucciarelli and Peter Kroes In Chapter 6, Louis Bucciarelli and Peter Kroes contribute to the ongoing discussion about engineering education on the basis of the pioneering ethnographic studies of engineering practices Bucciarelli carried out in the second half of the 1980s (Bucciarelli, 1988, 1994). Bucciarelli, who at the time was a professor at MIT in the school of engineering, has been one of the first researchers to apply the ethnographic approach to the engineering sciences through participatory observations in engineering firms.

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