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An approach to configuration control in shutdown is use of risk monitoring tools like ORAM. Such a tool (which, because it was developed by EPRI, attracted much higher popularity in the USA than elsewhere, see section #2) allows a utility to optimise an outage (and reduce its duration) by maintaining a configuration which would guarantee low risk. Moreover such tools allow for modelling of changes in outage schedule and adjustment in configuration to maintain required safety barriers. Another form of administrative control of safety in outages is the preparation of a Shutdown safety plan or operational plan for an outage.

Practices Implemented on the Tihange’s Site for the Mid-loop State”; Internal Note, Tihange NPP, November 1996. 2. )”; Internal Document, KGB Gundremmingen NPP, January 1995. 3. “Low-Power Level Safety Management of Finnish BWR”; Antii Piirto, Pekka Pyy, Leena Norros and Lasse Reiman; ANP 1992 Conference, Tokyo, October 1992. 4. “Shutdown Risk Analysis - Lessons and Views”; P. Pyy and R. Himanen, SRA Europe, Fourth Conference, Rome, October 1993. 5. “Experience from Shutdown Event PRA (SEPRA) for TVO I/II”; Risto Himanen, Jari Pesonen and Heikki Sjovall; IAEA TCM, Stockholm, November - December 1992.

After risks related with shutdown operations were recognised, such plans may get more detailed, and in particular may address additional redundancies or diversities. Shutdown safety plan is an extension of an outage operational plan to contain the risk management consideration. This would primarily list possible recovery actions considering systems and equipment which is or may be available at different periods during an outage. Among the countries and plants analysed, there are different approaches to administrative limitations during shutdown.

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Safety Improvements in Low-Power, Shutdown Modes (csni-r1997-17)

by James

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