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The solute permeability coefficient (B) can be determined based on the classical solution-diffusion theory (Lee et al. 8) where Rs is the solute (salt) rejection. Based on van’t Hoff equation, the solute flux can be expressed as (Tang et al. 9) where b = F·i is the van’t Hoff coefficient (see Eq. 3), R is the universal gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature. 2 The Effect of Membrane Orientation As described in Fig. 3 different membrane orientations have resulted in different water transport mechanisms and the corresponding ICP.

The relationship between the membrane structural parameter (S) and transport properties in thin-film composite hollow fibre FO membrane was developed by Chou et al. (2010) and was derived from the water flux equation (Loeb et al. 1997; Lee et al. 1981; Tang et al. 2010) (Eqs. 6). 2 Nature Meets Technology: Forward Osmosis Membrane Technology 35 For highly concentrated feed and draw solutions, Eqs. 10) It can be seen that Eq. 10 is identical to an initial equation developed by Loeb et al. (1997) (Eq.

The observed rates are expressed as a ratio of the values measured with DI to the values obtained from the NaCl solutions. The ratio predicted from the van’t Hoff equation is plotted below the line of unity. The values obtained for rehydration from 100 mM sucrose (inverted triangle) and 50 mM Na gluconate (triangle) lie on or near the value predicted from the van’t Hoff equation (From Hillyard and Larsen 2001) on the viscosity of vicinal or confined water as they might affect membrane separation processes that use very finely porous polymeric films.

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Plans for a complete beekeeping system by Garden Way Research

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