Physics, Pharmacology and Physiology for Anaesthetists: Key - download pdf or read online
By Cross M.E., Plunkett E.V.E.
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Extra info for Physics, Pharmacology and Physiology for Anaesthetists: Key Concepts for the FRCA
The power required for respiration is only approximately 700–1000 mW, compared with approximately 80 W needed at basal metabolic rate. 23 The gas laws Boyle’s law At a constant temperature, the volume of a fixed amount of a perfect gas varies inversely with its pressure. PV ¼ K or V / 1=P Charles’ law At a constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of a perfect gas varies in proportion to its absolute temperature. V=T ¼ K or V / T Gay–Lussac’s law (The third gas law) At a constant volume, the pressure of a fixed amount of a perfect gas varies in proportion to its absolute temperature.
Three lines are chosen to illustrate the volume–pressure relationship above, at and below the critical temperature. Nitrous oxide isotherm Liquid and vapour Draw this outline on the diagram first in order that your other lines will pass through it at the correct points. 20 8C From right to left, the line curves up initially and then becomes horizontal as it crosses the ‘liquid/vapour’ curve. Once all vapour has been liquidized, the line climbs almost vertically as liquid is incompressible, leading to a rapid increase in pressure for a small decrease in volume.
Osmosis and colligative properties Osmometer An osmometer is a device used for measuring the osmolality of a solution. Solution is placed in the apparatus, which cools it rapidly to 0 8C and then supercools it more slowly to À7 8C. This cooling is achieved by the Peltier effect (absorption of heat at the junction of two dissimilar metals as a voltage is applied), which is the reverse of the Seebeck effect. The solution remains a liquid until a mechanical stimulus is applied, which initiates freezing.
Physics, Pharmacology and Physiology for Anaesthetists: Key Concepts for the FRCA by Cross M.E., Plunkett E.V.E.