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By Julius Guttmann

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Extra info for Philosophies of Judaism: History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical Times.....

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For God, ethics is not an end in itself, but a means for the attainment of human happiness. 36 The ultimate aim of God's creation is the good of his creatures. God's self-sufficiency rules out any thought of his doing anything for his own good; creation, therefore, serves only the good of creatures, and esjpeZialiy the most perfect among them-man. The detailed elaboration of this idea lends to a theodicy --- - which provides the framework within which Saadia, like the Mu'tazilites, discusses ethical and religious questions.

2. Every composite thing must, of necessity, have been created by a Creator who fashioned a whole from different parts. Both the earth and all bodies found upon it, as well as the heavens, are compounded of many parts. Hence the world, which is a composite of them all, was created. 3. All natural bodies in the world are the bearers of accidents, immersed in an unending stream of generation and corruption. These accidents are foimd throughout the world, from organic beings, subject to generation and corruption, to celestial bodies engaged in their various movements.

Against the denial of the belief in God they sought to prove his existence; against the belief in two powers, they sought to demonstrate his unity; against the critique of revealed religion they advanced both rational proof of the necessity of revelation, and historical proofs of the truth of Islam. To the critical rationalism which rejected revelation, they opposed a *believing rationalism whose ultimate religious ideal was similar to that of its opponents, but which held the Islamic revelation to be the sole true realization of this ideal.

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Philosophies of Judaism: History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical Times..... by Julius Guttmann


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