New PDF release: Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering Vol. 2
By Robert F. Mitchell, Larry W. Lake (Editor-in-Chief)
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Extra info for Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering Vol. 2
This results in adjustments to the pore pressure computations based on differences in the magnitudes of the horizontal stresses in different regions. The relationship between the measured quantity and the effective stress is derived either using explicit functional relationships or by so-called trend-line methods. Trend-line methods require the existence of a depth section, over which the pore pressure is hydrostatic, to derive the NCT. Equivalent Depth Methods. One example of analysis using a trend line is the equivalent depth method illustrated in Fig.
Chapter 1—Geomechanics Applied to Drilling Engineering II-23 SHORTMAN UTT S H max − P p ~ 3 (S H min − P p ). 12) Substituting this relation into Eq. 10 demonstrates that σθθmin ~ 0, and it is easy for the wellbore to fail in tension, especially if ΔP and ΔT are greater than zero. Because the horizontal stress difference is smaller in a normal or reverse-faulting stress state than for a strike-slip stress state, tensile failure is less likely in these faulting regimes unless a wellbore is inclined.
This is a particular problem when there is a very long openhole interval. Fortunately, it is often Print Search Contents Home Chapter 2 Bookmarks Help II-48 Petroleum Engineering Handbook—Vol. II SHORTMAN UTT Fig. 41—Plots of pressure vs. flow rate showing that at low flow rates, before fracture opening, pressure increases rapidly with flow rate, but once the fracture opens, a large increase in flow rate can be accommodated with only a small increase in pressure. Sometimes the transition between the two regimes is abrupt (top); sometimes it is more gradual and requires a wide range of flow rates to delineate (bottom) (courtesy GeoMechanics Intl.
Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering Vol. 2 by Robert F. Mitchell, Larry W. Lake (Editor-in-Chief)