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By Robert Mitchell
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19 to account for temperature effects and diagenesis (cementation and other changes that occur over time). Pore fluid properties can also have a significant effect on pore-pressure predictions. This is because resistivity and velocity are both affected by the type and properties of the pore fluid. Changes in the salinity of brines will change resistivity, because pore fluid conductivity increases with salinity; thus a salinity increase (for example, adjacent to or beneath a salt dome) could be misinterpreted as an increase in pore pressure.
5 Determining Stress Orientation The most reliable way to determine stress orientation is to identify features (either geological features or wellbore failures) the orientation of which is controlled by the orientations of the present-day in-situ stresses. Other methods that rely on observing the effect of stress on rock properties using oriented core have been found to be less reliable and subject to influence by factors other than in-situ stress. 1 Using Wellbore Failure. As previously discussed, wellbore breakouts occur in vertical wells at the azimuth of SHmin, and drilling-induced tensile failures occur 90° to breakouts at the azimuth of SHmax Therefore, the orientations of these stress-induced wellbore failures uniquely define the orientations of the far-field horizontal stresses when using data from vertical wells.
28—Data and display from a Schlumberger crossed dipole log (xDSI™) showing results and quality control curves. A high-quality crossed-dipole analysis result has large maximum energy and low minimum energy (Track 1), a consistent orientation with a small uncertainty (Track 3), and large time- and velocitydomain anisotropy (Track 4). A low quality result has low maximum energy and very small anisotropy; a consistent orientation and low uncertainty are meaningless when this is the case. The second (reloading) technique relies on the assumption that samples are much “softer” at stresses that are below their original confining stress than they are at stresses above their original confining stress.
Petroleum Engineering Handbook by Robert Mitchell