Osmoregulation in Birds by Professor Dr. Erik Skadhauge (auth.) PDF
By Professor Dr. Erik Skadhauge (auth.)
The procedure of this treatise is physiological all through. within the eyes of the writer it solutions the rhetorical query raised via Maurice B. Visscher on the body structure Congress in Washington D. C. in 1968: Does body structure exist? What he intended by way of this question used to be no matter if the fields of mobile body structure and body structure of a few of the organ structures had develop into so huge that body structure as such had vanished. The company resolution is that body structure does certainly exist. even though it is critical to check physiological difficulties on the subcellular point, it really is importan- and both tricky - to review organ legislation on the mobile point, organ interplay, and integration into the entire organism. An account of avian osmoregulation from an built-in perspective is tried during this e-book. considering studying Homer W. Smith's From Fish to thinker and August Krogh's Osmoregulation in Aquatic Animals verte brate osmoregulation has been within the middle of the author's curiosity. the focal point used to be set on avian osmoregulation after own touch with the college of Krogh while operating within the laboratory of Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen. the basic techniques and isotope thoughts brought by way of Hans H. Ussing were of continuous thought. a good instance for the examine of osmoregulation on the mobile point was once given by means of the overdue Jean Maetz. The writing of this e-book was once steered by means of Donald S. Farner who's thanked for thorough editorial advice, and particularly with assist in the delicate semantic peculiarities of the English language.
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Extra info for Osmoregulation in Birds
1) it is 43 t Dehyd. 4 Minimal water Cowbird (Molothrus ater) 10 16 65 38 89 134 67 42 Weathers and Caccamise (1975) 79 153 34 MacMillen and Trost (1967a) MacMillen and Trost (1967b) 42 42 107 Weathers et a!. (1980) 28 Weathers and Schoenbaechler (1976) 33 Dawson et a!. 1. Rate of evaporation. Evaporation is related to body weight at thermoneutrality, and during maximal thermal stress. In the latter situation is indicated the fraction of heat production which can be dissipated by evaporation. The maximal ambient temperature within the zone of thermoneutrality is also indicated +>- Vl 140 200 89 69 65 50 Hudson et al.
To some extent the maximal salinity of the fluid ingested will be governed by the magnitude ofthe evaporative water loss and, for some species, the rate of excretion through the salt gland. If the rate of evaporation is relatively low, the amount of "free water" that the bird must procure is smaller, and the concentration of NaCI in drinking water closer to the renal ceiling. For small birds, which have a high rate of metabolism per kg body weight, there is a relatively high rate of production of metabolic water, which serves the same function and permits drinking of water of higher salinity.
Skadhauge (1968) even found tracks of uric acid in the narrow neck of the caecum close to the ileum. Bell and Bird (1966) failed to detect uric acid in the bulk of caecal material near the blind end. Since most urinary uric acid is precipitated in the coprodeum, and little moves to the colon (Skadhauge 1968), and the amount in solution is small (see p. 85), it is not surprising that no uric acid is measurable in the caeca. In addition there is the 34 • fluid 75 5 02mm O Smm [J fluid (reel I) 2 HR ex 25 w ~ ex I SI' ~~ ~ "'~~ ", c~~ ~.
Osmoregulation in Birds by Professor Dr. Erik Skadhauge (auth.)