Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary by Charles H. Lineweaver, Chas A. Egan (auth.), Liz Swan, PDF
By Charles H. Lineweaver, Chas A. Egan (auth.), Liz Swan, Richard Gordon, Joseph Seckbach (eds.)
Origin(s) of layout in Nature is a suite of over forty articles from favourite researchers within the lifestyles, actual, and social sciences, medication, and the philosophy of technology that each one tackle the philosophical and clinical query of the way layout emerged within the flora and fauna. the amount deals a wide number of views at the layout debate together with revolutionary bills from man made existence, embryology, complexity, cosmology, theology and the philosophy of biology. This booklet is quantity 23 of the sequence, mobile beginning, lifestyles in severe Habitats and Astrobiology. www.springer.com/series/5775
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Extra resources for Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary Look at How Design Emerges in Complex Systems, Especially Life
If thermal energy dominates the gravitational binding energy (top), then entropy will increase as material diffuses and spreads out over the entire volume (think perfume diffusing in a room). g. Binney and Tremaine, 2008). If gravitational binding energy dominates thermal energy (bottom), then entropy will increase as some material and angular momentum is expelled to allow other matter to have lower angular momentum and gravitationally collapse into galaxies and stars. We do not know how to compute the entropy associated with gravitational collapse.
If the potential is from an electric field, work is done when a charged dm falls from high potential to low potential (inside a kitchen appliance for example). In the presence of a velocity gradient, momentum exchange does work (windmill). Work can be extracted from a chemical potential gradient (concentration gradient) when a particle species does work by going from high concentration to low concentration (lithium batteries, osmotic pressure engines, metazoan digestive tracts). Jaynes (1984) describes the relationship between the Carnot efficiency of a heat engine and the efficiency of muscles and insightfully relates both to work and the number of degrees of freedom.
TSun = constant ~ 6,000 K and TEarth = constant ~ 290 K) yields dF = -T dS , (2) 8 CHARLES H. LINEWEAVER AND CHAS A. EGAN Figure 3. Entropy, S, increases when the number of degrees of freedom over which the energy is spread increases. In the top panel, the kinetic energy of one black ball is transferred to the kinetic energy of one white ball. The number of degrees of freedom over which the energy is spread (and thus the entropy) is constant. In the bottom panel, the kinetic energy of the black ball is transferred to six white balls.
Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary Look at How Design Emerges in Complex Systems, Especially Life by Charles H. Lineweaver, Chas A. Egan (auth.), Liz Swan, Richard Gordon, Joseph Seckbach (eds.)