Download e-book for iPad: One to Nine: The Inner Life of Numbers by Andrew Hodges
By Andrew Hodges
Andrew Hodges, one in every of Britain’s prime biographers and mathematical writers, brings numbers to third-dimensional existence during this pleasant and illuminating quantity, jam-packed with illustrations, which makes even the main demanding math difficulties obtainable to the layperson. encouraged through millennia of human makes an attempt to determine issues out, this pithy publication, which tackles mathematical conundrums from the traditional Greeks to superstring concept, unearths a brand new twist to every thing from musical concord to code breaking, from the chemistry of sunflowers to the secret of magic squares. beginning with the puzzle of defining harmony, and finishing with the routine nines of countless decimals, Hodges tells a narrative that takes in quantum physics, cosmology, weather swap, and the starting place of the pc. Hodges has written a vintage paintings, instantaneously playful yet satisfyingly tutorial, with a purpose to be excellent for the maths aficionado and the Sudoku addict in addition to for the lifetime of the get together.
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Additional info for One to Nine: The Inner Life of Numbers
However, as with agency, the very basic assumptions that we have about the events in the world and the possible underlying relationship that they have – some of which we take to be causal, and others we decide are not – are still profoundly problematic in philosophy and psychology. The debate in philosophy was for the most part initiated by Hume, though discussion on the matter of causation pre-dates Hume: for example, Aristotle, Descartes and Ockham were concerned with specifying the concept of causation (for discussion, see Lucas, 2006; Von Wright, 1973; White, 1990).
Here, there is one main goal that needs to be maintained, and that is to keep the reactor in a stable safe state. , temperature and pressure) so that every change in state of the system works towards the target goal. Clearly, no matter what variety of system it is, at the most fundamental level, these illustrations show that the requirements are the same. Some outcome needs to be achieved, and various steps are needed in order to reach it. Moreover, this has to be done in the backdrop of a huge degree of uncertainty about what makes things in the system change.
Hausman and Woodward’s (1999; see also Woodward, 2000) development of the theory with reference to intervention13 is premised on the following type of argument. Suppose that we want to examine whether there is a causal relationship between A (flicking the switch of a kettle) and B (the kettle turning on): we could do this by examining if an intervention on A produces a corresponding change in B, by reasoning that ‘if I had flicked the switch (A), then the kettle would be on (B)’. That A exerts a causal influence on B follows only if the change to B depends counterfactually on the intervention which changed under similar background conditions.
One to Nine: The Inner Life of Numbers by Andrew Hodges