Read e-book online Natural gas liquids : a nontechnical guide PDF
By Leffler, William L.; Ormston, Susan E.; Womack, Karla
What is at the back of the NGL identify from how those fuels are produced on the good website to intake within the fuels and petrochemical industries. alongside the way in which readers will comprehend the NGL method at fuel crops garage refinery operations and the chemistry required in the course of the price chain
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Extra resources for Natural gas liquids : a nontechnical guide
It drops even further as the fluids enter the voluminous space in the separator. At that reduced pressure and temperature, the vaporous natural gas and NGLs separate from the oil. They rise and exit at the top of the separator. Oil and any water fall to the bottom and naturally separate, as oil and water do, with water exiting the lower valve. The middle layer of crude oil comes out of the side valve. The process at a gas well is more or less the same, except oily material dissolved in the gas condenses (which is why it is called condensate) and comes out of the middle of a gas well separator.
And the same carbon and hydrogen count. Same story goes for normal pentane and isopentane, and so on. For those increasingly larger molecules, the branches can be in different places, so the number of isomers increases rapidly with the number of carbons. Fig. 4–3. Butane isomers. Both have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, but different structures. These isoparaffins are cousins or a subset of the paraffin family. As with any family members, they are different from each other. Even though both butanes, normal and iso-, have the formula C4H10, they each have unique properties—weight, volatility, chemical reactivity, boiling temperatures, and others.
The driller runs yet another set of tubulars, production casing, down the well and cements it place. The driller inserts production tubing inside the production casing, with some packers at the bottom. (See the right-hand side of fig. ) That provides a path for the oil or gas to flow or be pumped to the surface through the production tubing. Finally, in the “pay zone,” where the logs have shown that the reservoir sands and the hydrocarbons lie, the driller perforates the production casing by shooting holes in it, literally, with a perforating gun.
Natural gas liquids : a nontechnical guide by Leffler, William L.; Ormston, Susan E.; Womack, Karla