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Ticated from the 1950s onward, however, it be- By the 1980s the notions of ego and id were came apparent to specialists that the evidence considered hopelessly antiquated, even in some Freud had provided for his theories was rather psychoanalytic circles. Freud was history. In the tenuous. His principal method of investigation new psychology, the updated thinking went, de- was not controlled experimentation but simple pressed people do not feel so wretched because w w w. s c i a m m i n d . c o m SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN MIND COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

B E T T M A N N / C O R B I S ( p h o t o g r a p h ) ; A . W. F R E U D E T A L . , B Y A R R A N G E M E N T W I T H PAT E R S O N M A R S H LT D. , L O N D O N ( d r a w i n g ) but Freud’s concept of man-as-animal was pretty much sidelined by cognitive scientists. Now it has returned. Neuroscientists such as Donald W. Pfaff of the Rockefeller University and Panksepp of Bowling Green State University believe that the instinctual mechanisms that govern human motivation are even more primitive than Freud imagined.

In 1891 the clan moved to larger quarters in Vienna— a house big enough to accommodate a room to treat patients. They stayed there for almost 50 years, until they had to flee the Nazis in 1938. Soon after the move Freud furthered his relationship with Joseph Breuer, a physician who was experimenting with hypnosis as treatment for various mental ills. In 1895 the two jointly published Studies on Hysteria. This classic book of case studies marked the birth of psychoanalysis. The two doctors explained that hysterical women suffered, above all, from “reminiscences”— fragmentary memories of traumatic events such as sexual abuse — that broke into their conscious minds in the form of anxiety fantasies.

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[Magazine] Scientific American Mind. Vol. 17. No 2

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