Download e-book for kindle: Lost Harvests: Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government by Sarah A. Carter
By Sarah A. Carter
Agriculture on Plains Indian reserves is usually suggestion to have failed as the local peoples lacked both an curiosity in farming or a flair for it. In misplaced Harvests Sarah Carter finds that reserve citizens have been apprehensive to farm and expended significant attempt on cultivation; govt guidelines, greater than the rest, acted to undermine their luck. regardless of repeated requests for the aid of Plains Indians, the Canadian govt supplied little or no aid among 1874 and 1885, and what little they did supply proved lifeless. even though drought, frost, and different traditional phenomena contributed to the failure of early efforts, reserve farmers have been decided to create an economic climate in line with agriculture and to develop into self sufficient of presidency laws and the necessity for counsel. officers in Ottawa, in spite of the fact that, attributed setbacks to not financial or weather conditions yet to the Indians' personality and traditions which, they claimed, made the Indians unsuited to agriculture. within the decade following 1885 govt rules made farming nearly most unlikely for the Plains Indians. They have been anticipated to subsist on one or acres and have been denied entry to any advancements in know-how: farmers needed to sow seed by way of hand, harvest with scythes, and thresh with flails. After the flip of the century, the govt inspired land surrenders with a view to make solid agricultural land on hand to non-Indian settlers. This destroyed any likelihood the Plains Indians had of constructing agriculture a sturdy fiscal base. via an exam of the appropriate released literature and of archival assets in Ottawa, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, Carter presents the 1st in-depth examine of presidency coverage, Indian responses, and the socio-economic of the reserve groups at the prairies within the post-treaty period.
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Extra resources for Lost Harvests: Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government Policy
42 In the 18505 the goal of Christianizing, educating, and making farmers out of the Indians of Upper Canada still appeared to be in the distant future. Legislators believed that in the meantime, steps should be taken to protect the Indians during their period of incubation. Thus the Indian was given special status in legislation passed in 1857. 43 As a reward for meeting these criteria, an Indian would be given fee simple title (absolute ownership) to up to fifty acres of reserve land, and after a probation period of one year he would receive the franchise.
111 In nineteenth-century Manitoba before the treaties of the 18705, Indian participation in gardening and farming was not uncommon. 115 Yellow Quill's band grew potatoes and corn along the valley of the Assiniboine at a place traditionally known as the Indian Gardens, which had been cultivated by themselves and their forefathers for a great number of years. 116 In the early 18705 the Dakota Indians planted gardens and small grain crops, such as oats and barley, along the Assiniboine. T17 Indians also worked as hired hands on the farms of settlers in Manitoba.
Using guns risked frightening the animals, which might break down the corral and escape. 56 Some Cree bands also trapped wolves, fox, muskrat, marten, and ermine for trade. The deepest cold of winter was the most difficult time; game was scarce and scattered, and what there was had to be stalked on foot. Moose, elk, and deer were hunted by some Cree bands, and small animals such as rabbits were snared. After spring break-up the Cree caught river fish by building weirs that interrupted the downstream run.
Lost Harvests: Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government Policy by Sarah A. Carter