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By Philip S. Alexander, Armin Lange and Renate J. Pillinger (editors)
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Extra resources for In the Second Degree: Paratextual Literature in Ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Mediterranean Culture and Its Reflections in Medieval Literature
Waldman studies how the Enoch/Metatron tradition was adapted to the realities of estranged Jewish mythical groups which diverged from mainstream Judaism. But literature in the second degree is not just a response to various crises, cultural developments, or the needs of religious groups. Literature in the second degree can also contribute to the development of a culture. This aspect is emphasized in the contribution of Beate 26 armin lange Pongratz-Leisten. Texts like The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer (Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi) are not only based on cultural discourses but develop these discourses in new directions as well.
68 For the literary growth of the BW, see George W. E. Nickelsburg, “Apocalyptic and Myth in 1 Enoch 6–11,” JBL 96/3 (1977): 383–405, esp. 384–86; idem, Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108 (vol. : Fortress Press, 2001), 165 and ad loc. Cf. also Carol A. Newsom, “The Development of 1 Enoch 6–19: Cosmology and Judgment,” CBQ 42 (1980): 310– 29. For a summary of the various reconstructions of the BW’s redactional history, see Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, Prophets of Old and the Day of the End: Zechariah, the Book of Watchers and Apocalyptic (OTS 35; Leiden: Brill, 1996), 152–64.
For a brief history of research about social memory in general, see Jeffrey K. Olick and Joyce Robbins, “Social Memory Studies: From ‘Collective Memory’ to Historical Sociology of Mnemonic Practices,” AnnRevSociol 24 (1998): 105–40. 62 This means that because the broader public no longer spoke or understood Sumerian, oral transmission could no longer preserve the Sumerian part of Mesopotamia’s cultural identity. A vital part of Mesopotamia’s cultural memory was hence threatened with oblivion. To avoid such a loss of cultural memory and hence cultural identity the oral traditions of Sumeria were written down, that is to say, Sumeria’s oral cultural memory became Mesopotamia’s written cultural memory.
In the Second Degree: Paratextual Literature in Ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Mediterranean Culture and Its Reflections in Medieval Literature by Philip S. Alexander, Armin Lange and Renate J. Pillinger (editors)