Download e-book for kindle: Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications by Éric Gilli
By Éric Gilli
Hydrogeology, the technological know-how of groundwater, calls for a multidisciplinary technique related to many different sciences: floor hydrology, climatology, geology, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, and extra. This e-book takes a vast view, considers water as a unmarried entity, and provides many examples illustrating the diversity of latest hydrogeological difficulties and the varied medical, technical, and social techniques utilized in resolving them. it truly is meant essentially for college kids of Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and actual Geography. it is going to even be helpful to all gamers concerned with water-related matters: hydrogeologists, geologists, soil scientists, agronomists, civil engineers, and builders.
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Extra info for Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications
2 Fundamentals of hydrogeology A few research interests deserve to be highlighted here, such as the role of water in tectonics and magnetism, the depth of groundwater circulation, the mechanisms governing the formation of the great karst systems (Fontaine de Vaucluse, Port Miou), the modelling of karst flow, and the role of microbiology in the physical and chemical properties of groundwater. Lastly, at the time of writing, hydrogeology is extending out onto other planets, as the fabulous data and images being sent back from Mars by the European Mars Explorer and the rovers Spirit and Opportunity bring proof of Martian water circulation, which may still be present in a liquid state below the surface of the red planet.
Table 2 Residence Time in Different Reservoirs. Natural environment atmosphere continental glaciers soil surface aquifers Residence time a few hours to a few days a few hundred to a few thousand years a few days to a few months a few weeks to several hundreds of thousands of years Aquifers and glaciers therefore play a long-term regulating role for water passing through continents. With the exception of infiltrated water, which is protected from incoming solar radiation, the other classes of water are subject to phase changes due to: • sublimation of ice and snow; • evaporation of surface and ocean water; • use and transpiration of water by living organisms, particularly plants.
In such a basin, under natural conditions, tectonic disturbances affecting the intermediary aquicludes tend to allow deeper waters to flow up into shallower aquifers. 38 Hydrogeology—Objectives, Methods, Applications Figure 16 Principal aquifers of the Paris Basin (from the Seine-Normandie Water Agency). 3 Alpine and mediterranean ranges (Pyrénées, Languedoc, Provence, Alps, Jura) The epicontinental basins, which preceded orogeny, included carbonate platforms. The defining characteristic of the external zones of the French Alps is their carbonate backbone, interlayered with marl, with limestone alternating with marl layers.
Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications by Éric Gilli