Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Stationary and Transportation by Said Al-Hallaj, Kristofer Kiszynski PDF

Environmental Studies

By Said Al-Hallaj, Kristofer Kiszynski

ISBN-10: 184628466X

ISBN-13: 9781846284663

Renewable strength applied sciences were used on a small scale for a few years now. problems with intermittency and price have avoided their frequent use and recognition. at the moment, dialogue and examine is geared toward relocating the present worldwide fossil fuels financial system to 1 according to hydrogen because the common strength provider, with gas cells as a method of changing this chemical strength to electric energy.

Hybrid Hydrogen Systems offers an unique and entire method of hybrid power approach optimization, supplying a much-needed structures method of hydrogen strength purposes. This ebook offers a finished evaluation of the basics of renewable energy iteration, conversion and garage, including:

  • wind,
  • solar photovoltaic power,
  • biomass,
  • batteries,
  • fuel cells, and
  • hydrogen.

As good as featuring a special method of reduce the price and maximize the reliability of hybrid strength structures, Hybrid Hydrogen Systems introduces the advantages of hydrogen as an power service within the context of sustainability.

This ebook may be of curiosity to researchers and practitioners operating with hydrogen and gas cells, in addition to to coverage makers and advocates of renewable strength. Hybrid Hydrogen Systems can also be a priceless software for graduate and complex undergraduate scholars learning renewable power and the layout and optimization of hydrogen strength platforms, in addition to for the teachers who educate those subjects.

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This section will summarize the different types of fuel cells and differences among them. 1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) utilizes a hydrated polymeric membrane that acts as an ion conductor. Nafion is a widely used membrane manufactured by DuPont. The electrodes are porous carbon electrodes with a platinum catalyst. The most common fuel is pure H2 and the most common oxidant is air. The hydrogen enters at the anode, where it is ionized with the help of a platinum catalyst.

Cells using amorphous silicon (a-Si) are of interest because they can be manufactured on continuous lines and require less silicon than the other PV cell types described. The main problem with a-Si cells currently is that they are less efficient than multi-crystalline and mono-crystalline silicon cells. But, because of their lower manufacturing costs, they are able to achieve a lower cost/watt-peak. Typical efficiencies of commercially available PV panels range from 10 to 17%. 3 Inorganic Solar Cell Operation Photons from the sun can be captured and used directly to produce electricity through the use of a PV cell, which can be made of several semiconductor materials.

A solar concentrator focuses light on a solar cell at intensities several times higher than that provided by a single sun. Several types of concentrators exist including parabolic, Fresnel and Winston. The benefit of such an approach is that, since the solar cell current is proportional to the intensity of the light incident to the cell, the solar cell should provide a higher current. By substituting inexpensive optics for expensive semiconductor material, system costs are reduced. 2 Photovoltaic Cells 23 Fig.

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Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Stationary and Transportation Applications by Said Al-Hallaj, Kristofer Kiszynski

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