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By James Bowman
The significance of honor is found in the earliest files of civilization. this present day, whereas it could nonetheless be a vital notion in Islamic cultures, within the West, honor has been disparaged and brushed aside as out of date. during this full of life and authoritative e-book, James Bowman strains the curious and interesting background of this perfect, from the center a long time during the Enlightenment and to the killing fields of global warfare I and the melancholy of Vietnam. Bowman reminds us that the destiny of honor and the destiny of morality or even manners are deeply interrelated. His ebook is an crucial rfile in a time of becoming challenge concerning the erosion of values.
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Extra info for Honor: A History
Second, all branches of the tree either die or ramify further. t Yet, within these constraints of monophyly and divergence, the geometric possibilities for evolutionary trees are nearly endless. A bush may quickly expand to maximal width and then taper continuously, like a Christmas tree. Or it may diversify rapidly, but then maintain its full width by a continuing balance of innovation and death. Or it may, like a tumbleweed, branch helter-skelter in a confusing jumble of shapes and sizes. Ignoring these multifarious possibilities, conventional iconography has fastened upon a primary model, the "cone of increasing diversity," an upside-down Christmas tree.
Compared with the Burgess seas, today's oceans contain many more species based upon many fewer anatomical plans. 17 presents a revised iconography reflecting the lessons of the Burgess Shale. The maximum range of anatomical possibilities arises with the first rush of diversification. * *I have struggled over a proper name for this phenomenon of massive elimination from an initial set of forms, with concentration of all future history into a few surviving lineages. For many years, I thought of this pattern as "winnowing," but must now reject this metaphor because all meanings of winnowing refer to separation of the good from the bad (grain from chaff in the original)—while I believe that the preservation of only a few Burgess possibilities worked more like a lottery.
17. The false but still conventional iconography of the cone of increasing diversity, and the revised model of diversification and decimation, suggested by the proper reconstruction of the Burgess Shale. of multicellular life would have to lie in the narrow neck of the funnel. Burgess animals therefore could not stray beyond a strictly limited diversity and a basic anatomical simplicity. In short, they had to be classified either as primitive forms within modern groups, or as ancestral animals that might, with increased complexity, progress to some familiar form of the modern seas.
Honor: A History by James Bowman