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By Kerry Bernstein, K.M. Carrig, Christopher M. Durham, Patrick R. Hansen, David Hogenmiller, Edward J. Nowak, Norman J. Rohrer
High pace CMOS layout Styles is written for the graduate-level pupil or practising engineer who's essentially attracted to circuit layout. it's meant to supply functional reference, or `horse-sense', to mechanisms as a rule defined with a extra educational slant. This booklet is prepared in order that it may be used as a textbook or as a reference e-book.
High velocity CMOS layout Styles presents a survey of layout kinds in use in undefined, in particular within the excessive pace microprocessor layout neighborhood. common sense circuit buildings, I/O and interface, clocking, and timing schemes are reviewed and defined. features, sensitivities and idiosyncrasies of every are highlighted. High SpeedCMOS layout Styles additionally pulls jointly and explains participants to functionality variability which are linked to approach, purposes stipulations and layout. principles of thumb and useful references are provided. all the basic circuit households is then analyzed for its sensitivity and reaction to this variability.
High velocity CMOS layout Styles is a wonderful resource of rules and a compilation of observations that spotlight how assorted methods alternate off serious parameters in layout and strategy space.
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Extra info for High Speed CMOS Design Styles
20 High Speed CMOS Design Styles Front-End-Of-Line Variability Considerations doped, for example. This is an area which requires awareness of inter-fabricator variation. Rule of thumb: Fold expected NBTI threshold voltage shift in with hot electron wearout in budgeting total margin required. Because NBTI results from negative gate-to-body bias, it is primarily a consideration for PFETs. 9 Body Effect The threshold voltage of a device is altered by its source-to-substrate bias voltage Body Effect refers to the effect that elevated source voltage has on the threshold voltage of the device.
This leakage is usually categorized by the source of the carriers, into either generation current, or diffusion current. Generation current is defined as that due to electronhole pairs created in the junction depletion zone. These currents are dominant in highspeed CMOS process technologies and are strongly field (and therefore voltage) dependent. Diffusion currents are defined as those contributed by carriers that 'wander' into the depletion zone from the substrate or well. Such currents have negligible voltage dNendence but very strong temperature dependence, varying to first order as e-EGAPI(k ,where E is the band-gap energy of silicon.
In addition, screening product for defects by monitoring standby current I I can be no longer effective. Defect mechanisms which have fixed magnitudes ofleakage become bigger problems with scaling. As scaling reduces node capacitance, charge retention becomes more urgent. Charge loss comes from circuit design as well as technology, and have a wide range of relative magnitudes. 15, and are explored below; charge loss associated with design sources are identified on page 96 II. Standby current, or Ioo(quiescent), is the DC power consumption of the chip when the clocks are not running, and the part is stopped at a particular machine state.
High Speed CMOS Design Styles by Kerry Bernstein, K.M. Carrig, Christopher M. Durham, Patrick R. Hansen, David Hogenmiller, Edward J. Nowak, Norman J. Rohrer