James G. Speight's Heavy Oil Production Processes PDF
By James G. Speight
As conventional-oil assets are depleted world wide, titanic heavy oil reserves to be had in numerous elements of the realm develop into more and more very important as a safe destiny strength resource. short yet readable, Heavy Oil creation tactics discusses the newest advancements in creation procedures together with; thermal tools (steam floods, cyclic steam stimulation, SAGD) in addition to non-thermal equipment (cold movement with sand construction, cyclic solvent strategy, VAPEX). The booklet starts off with an outline of the chemistry, engineering, and expertise of heavy oil as they evolve into the twenty-first century. The previous chapters are written to supply a easy realizing of every expertise, evolving procedures and new methods in addition to a few of the environmental regulations.
Clear and rigorous,
Heavy Oil creation procedures will end up worthy for these scientists and engineers already engaged in fossil gas technological know-how and know-how in addition to scientists, non-scientists, engineers, and non-engineers who desire to achieve a common evaluate or replace of the technological know-how and know-how of fossil fuels. The not basically does the ebook speak about the production tactics but in addition presents equipment which should still lessen environmental footprint and increase profitability.
- Overview of the chemistry, engineering, and expertise of oil sands
- Updates at the evolving methods and new processes
- Evolving and new environmental rules relating to oil sands construction
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Extra info for Heavy Oil Production Processes
There is a great variation in the salt content of heavy oil depending mainly on the source and possibly on the producing wells or zones within a field. In addition, at the refinery, salt water introduced during shipment by tanker may have contributed to this total salt content. These salts have adverse effects on refinery operations especially in increasing maintenance following corrosion in refinery units and heat exchangers. It is common practice to monitor wells in a producing field for high salt content, and it is also general practice to carry out the desalting operation at the refinery, if the properties of the heavy oil are conducive to such an operation.
Controlled drawdown helps avoid two-phase flow in the reservoir. Downhole heavy oil analyzers are used to monitor sample contamination and ensure single-phase flow prior to sample capture. In surface sampling operations, proper well conditioning with minimum drawdown is the key to acquiring high-quality samples. Well conditioning requires that the well be flowed at an optimum rate for an extended period of time with a stable producing gas/oil ratio, but it must be recognized that sample quality and separator efficiency introduce uncertainties in the quality of the heavy oil sample.
The atomic hydrogen-tocarbon ratio gives an indication of the aromatic nature (or aliphatic nature) of the heavy oil but this is an estimate and should not be held as absolute. Broadly speaking, the aromatic nature of the heavy oil with an accounting of the functional groups can be an indication of the fluidity of the heavy oil as well as the tendency of the heavy oil to adhere to the reservoir rock. 5À1% w/w, tends to concentrate in the highest boiling fractions as both basic type (predominantly primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and pyridines) and Properties and Evaluation 47 neutral type (in the form of indole derivatives, carbazole derivatives, imides, as well as porphyrin nitrogen) functional groups (Speight, 2007).
Heavy Oil Production Processes by James G. Speight