Read e-book online Geschichte der Biologie: Die Wissenschaft vom Leben PDF


By Thomas Junker

ISBN-10: 3406508340

ISBN-13: 9783406508349

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Extra resources for Geschichte der Biologie: Die Wissenschaft vom Leben

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2, 75). Während bei Aristoteles das Seelenprinzip die Grundlage aller Lebensvorgänge ist, kommen die Organismen bei Descartes bis auf die genannte Ausnahme ohne etwas Entsprechendes aus. Die Bestrebungen von Descartes und seinen Nachfolgern, die Physiologie und allgemein die Biologie auf eine rein naturwissenschaftliche Basis zu gründen, bedeuteten einen fundamentalen Umbruch. Zugleich galten sie vielfach als oberflächlich und 52 Die Wissenschaft der Lebensvorgänge Abb. Jahrhundert (Chapuis & Celis 1928, Bd.

44 Der Bauplan der Organismen Gemeinsame Abstammung Nachdem die Idealistische Morphologie die erste Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts dominiert hatte, kam es mit Darwins Origin of Species (1859) zu einem tiefgreifenden Umbruch. Nach mehr als einem Jahrhundert des Vergessens wurde Buffons zweite Erklärung für die ‹wunderbaren Ähnlichkeiten) innerhalb weniger Jahre zum Ausgangspunkt einer neuen Sichtweise: Als Ursache für die Einheit des Bauplans galt nun nicht mehr eine Idee, sondern die materielle Abstammung der Organismen.

Der Samen hat «diese Bewegung und diese Kraftquelle in sich, und wenn diese Bewegung abgeschlossen ist, ist jedes Glied gebildet und belebt» (Aristoteles, De generatione animalium: 734a). An zwei zentralen Punkten haben sich die Vorstellungen von Aristoteles als falsch erwiesen. So erhält der Embryo seine Form nicht nur vom männlichen Samen, sondern gleichermaßen von der weiblichen Eizelle. Auch ist die Ursache der Entwicklung kein immaterielles Formprinzip (‹Seele›), sondern ein materielles Genom.

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Geschichte der Biologie: Die Wissenschaft vom Leben by Thomas Junker

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