Gender, Family and Sexuality: The Private Sphere in Italy, - download pdf or read online
By P. Willson
This full of life choice of essays offers more than a few cutting edge study at the background of the personal sphere in Liberal and Fascist Italy, with a specific specialize in sexuality, gender and race - all features that have got scarce realization in a lot of the prevailing historiography. It contains articles on foundlings and their moms, the position of midwives, altering attitudes to sexuality, adultery trials, the Fascist persecution of homosexuals, debates approximately divorce and (going past Italy to its empire) the remedy of combined race childrens and their moms in Eritrea. Key topics of this assortment comprise the contrasting attitudes of the Liberal and Fascist governments to the position of the country within the deepest sphere, the effect of the Church and the impression of recent 'scientific' and clinical techniques to maternity, sexuality and demography.
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Additional info for Gender, Family and Sexuality: The Private Sphere in Italy, 1860–1945
See Rina Macrelli, L’indegna schiavitù. Anna Maria Mozzoni e la lotta contro la prostituzione di stato (Rome: Editori Riuniti, 1981). For a pioneering attempt to open up the history of Italian lesbians see Nerina Milletti, ‘Analoghe sconcezze. Tribade, saffiste, invertite e omosessuali: categorie e sistemi sesso/genere nella rivista di antropologia criminale fondata da Cesare Lombroso (1880–1949)’, DWF, 4 (1994), pp. 50–122. On the Fascist demographic campaign see, for example, Carl Ipsen, Dictating Demography: The Problem of Population in Fascist Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Maria Sophia Quine, Population Politics in Twentieth Century Europe: Fascist Dictatorships and Liberal Democracies (London: Routledge, 1996), ch.
218–21. Archivio Storico del Vicariato di Roma, Tribunale Criminale del Vicario (henceforth ASVR, TCV), busta 315, part one, un-numbered fasc. ASVR, TCV, Processi, 1870, fasc. 16,320. ASR, TP, Processi, 1875, busta 3,142, fasc. 8,006. ASR, TP, Sentenze, busta 89, sentence of 1 February 1900. This concept of masculinity also influenced the doctrinal debate which advised against punishing male adultery in the same way as female adultery. According to this a man should be excused ‘for the periodical incapacity of a woman to fulfil her conjugal duties (menstruation, pregnancy, nursing)’.
Presumptions of guilt When it came to ascertaining the facts and gathering proof, Liberal magistrates naturally needed witnesses and, just as naturally, the bestinformed witnesses were once again the neighbours. One example will suffice: the elderly landlord of one couple, when questioned about the alleged adultery of the wife, recounted that one morning when the husband was out at work, he saw the alleged lover in the corridor. 27 In this case, rather than refer to public reputation, it is evident that judges were interested in witnesses who would help prove the facts, rather than provide an assessment of the overall state of the marriage.
Gender, Family and Sexuality: The Private Sphere in Italy, 1860–1945 by P. Willson