F. Todd Smith's From Dominance to Disappearance: The Indians of Texas and PDF
By F. Todd Smith
From Dominance to Disappearance is the 1st particular background of the Indians of Texas and the close to Southwest from the past due eighteenth to the center 19th century, a interval that started with local peoples dominating the zone and ended with their disappearance, after settlers pressured the Indians in Texas to take shelter in Indian Territory. Drawing on various released and unpublished assets in Spanish, French, and English, F. Todd Smith lines the differing histories of Texas’s local peoples. He starts off in 1786, while the Spaniards concluded treaties with the Comanches and the Wichitas, between others, and strains the family members among the local peoples and many of the Euroamerican teams in Texas and the close to Southwest, a space encompassing components of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. For the 1st half this era, the local peoples—including the Caddos, the Karankawas, the Tonkawas, the Lipan Apaches, and the Atakapas in addition to emigrant teams equivalent to the Cherokees and the Alabama-Coushattas—maintained a numerical superiority over the Euroamericans that allowed them to persuade the region’s monetary, army, and diplomatic affairs. After Texas declared its independence, besides the fact that, the ability of local peoples in Texas declined dramatically, and besides it, their skill to outlive within the face of overwhelming hostility. From Dominance to Disappearance illuminates a poorly understood bankruptcy within the historical past of Texas and its indigenous humans. (20070116)
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Extra resources for From Dominance to Disappearance: The Indians of Texas and the Near Southwest, 1786-1859
55 As the number of tribes receiving European manufactured goods increased, the number of Indians residing in the few remaining missions declined. In fact, the Regulation of 1772’s focus on dealing with Indians through secular means rather than spiritual had pointed toward the demise of the Franciscan missions altogether. By the 1780s the six Coahuiltecan missions (ﬁve in San Antonio and one at La Bahía) contained few Indians, and those that remained had become well-instructed Christians. Many other Coahuiltecans had been absorbed into the Hispanic communities through marriage or work.
The ﬁrst group to arrive at Rapides, the Apalaches, had established a village there by the beginning of 1764. During the following decade, the other tribes joined the Apalaches and settled on the banks of the Red River, as well as on nearby Bayou Bouef, a stream ﬂowing south directly to the Gulf of Mexico. By 1773 the one hundred or so Indians living near Rapides outnumbered the small French population by two to one. The Indians established farms and successfully began raising livestock. The tribes once again maintained close ties with the local Europeans; the Apalaches even used the Catholic priest at Natchitoches to baptize their children, whose godparents were often leading citizens of the old French town.
Countless head of cattle and horses continued to roam on the open range between San Antonio and La Bahía, providing Indian warriors with tempting targets. 63 With few Hispanics concentrated in three small settlements, the numerous Indians of Texas were free to roam throughout the region. By the early 1780s the Lipan Apaches, pressured by continuing Norteño raids, had moved to the region south and east of San Antonio. As with the other Texas tribes, the Lipans had suffered from disease; epidemics of smallpox and diphtheria simultaneously struck in the fall of 1780 and plagued the Apaches for several years thereafter.
From Dominance to Disappearance: The Indians of Texas and the Near Southwest, 1786-1859 by F. Todd Smith