New PDF release: Flight control systems : practical issues in design and
By Roger Pratt; Institution of Electrical Engineers.; American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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Extra info for Flight control systems : practical issues in design and implementation
8 Aircraft structural modes of vibration the inertial-sensor outputs usually require attenuation to avoid driving the aircraft's flying control surfaces at these frequencies and further exciting the flexible m o d e s - - o t h e r w i s e known as airframe/FCS structural coupling 3 . The necessary attenuation is achieved by introducing analogue or digital filters, for example notch (band-stop) filters, into the feedback paths. T h e major constraints on filter design are the need to meet specified stability requirements for the flexible modes and the need to minimise the additional phase lag introduced by the filters at rigid aircraft control frequencies, in order to minimise the impact on achievable aircraft handling.
The ratings obtained are usually qualified with pilot comments. From a systems-operation viewpoint, the state of the system is defined in terms of its availability. This takes into account the possible failure modes of the system and has a significant impact on the FCS design, in terms of its Industrial considerationsfor flight control 15 redundancy management. Good flying qualities alone are not enough, and the system must have sufficient integrity to meet safety and mission requirements. Reference [ 11 ] defines the following operational states: • Operational state I (normal operation) is the normal state of FCS performance, safety and reliability; • Operational state II (restricted operation) is the state of less than normal e q u i p m e n t operation or performance which involves degradation or failure of only a noncritical portion of the overall FCS; a moderate increase in crew workload and degradation in mission effectiveness may result from a limited selection of normally-operating FCS modes available for use; however, the intended mission may be accomplished; • Operational state III (minimum safe operation) is the state of degraded FCS performance, safety or reliability which permits safe termination of precision tracking or manoeuvering tasks, and safe cruise, descent, and landing at the destination of original intent or alternate, but where pilot workload is excessive or mission effectiveness is inadequate; phases of the intended mission involving precision tracking or manoeuvering cannot be completed satisfactorily; • Operational state IV (controllable to an immediate emergency landing) is the state of degraded FCS operation at which continued safe flight is not possible; however, sufficient control remains to allow engine-restart attempt(s), a controlled descent and immediate emergency landing; • Operational state V (controllable to an evacuable flight condition) is the state of degraded FCS operation at which the FCS capability is limited to manoeuvres required to reach a flight condition at which crew evacuation may be safely accomplished.
The ARINC 429 digital databus, which is a single source, multisink unidirectional data transmission bus, defines the data-exchange standard for digital data between avionics systems . The flight control computers have ARINC 429 interfaces between each other and to the other avionics systems, such as the air data/inertial reference unit (ADIRU), radio altimeters, autopilot, flight warning computer, maintenance computer etc. Discrete signals (28 volts/open or g r o u n d / o p e n ) are used to transmit single, logical information, mainly on the system status.
Flight control systems : practical issues in design and implementation by Roger Pratt; Institution of Electrical Engineers.; American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics