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By Sigrid Brauner
In fifteenth-century Germany, ladies have been singled out as witches for the 1st time in background; this ebook explores why. Sigrid Brauner examines the connections between 3 valuable advancements in early sleek Germany: a shift in gender roles for girls; the increase of a brand new city excellent of femininity; and the witch hunts that swept throughout Europe from 1435 to 1750. "In medieval discourse on witchcraft, Brauner argues, women and men have been assumed to develop into witches in approximately equivalent numbers. yet beginning with the infamous Malleus Maleficarum (1487), witchcraft used to be reinterpreted as a gender-specific crime: its authors contentiously argued that the majority witches have been ladies and associated the crime of witchcraft to women's voracious sexual appetites. Protestant authors resembling Martin Luther, Paul Rebhun, and Hans Sachs. . . pushed aside such lurid claims approximately women's sexuality. yet they endured to work out witchcraft as a feminine crime. . . . such a lot particularly in Rebhun's and Sach's paintings, the witch is linked to disobedience to husbands and irrelevant gender habit. therefore Brauner's cautious and clever readings of those authors recommend . . . that conserving gender hierarchy could certainly were a concern for German authorities."-Signs "Brauner's ebook speaks expertly and persuasively to a various viewers . . . attracted to glossy literary, cultural, and gender experiences. . . . [It] is a excitement to read."-German Quarterly "Raises attention-grabbing questions about the genesis of the fashionable social difficulties of race, gender, and sophistication oppression, and locates their roots within the early sleek period."-Choice till her unintended loss of life in 1992, Sigrid Brauner used to be assistant professor of German literature on the college of Massachusetts Amherst. Her e-book was once edited for book by means of her buddy robert h. brown, writer of Nature's Hidden Terror: Violent Nature Imagery in Eighteenth-Century Germany.
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Additional resources for Fearless wives and frightened shrews: the construction of the witch in early modern Germany
According to Brian Levack, the percentage of widows among women rose in some places from an average of 10 percent to 20 percent in the Middle Ages to as high as 30 percent in the early modern period because of wars and plagues (which usually claimed more victims among men than among women). By the seventeenth century, the percentage of women who never married had grown from 5 percent to 10 percent, and in some places to as high as 20 percent. 39 Protestantism refused to acknowledge common-law marriage, and formal marriage Page 18 required establishing a household and therefore owning a house, which few could afford.
In her manuscript, Brauner starts from the premise that the role of women changed in early modern Europe from a traditional one of supporting (and even supplanting) men in their public and productive roles to one of complementing male activity with a discrete set of "feminine" household tasks performed in the emerging private sphere. Brauner sees a connection among three central developments in early modern Germany: a shift in gender roles for women; the rise of a new urban ideal of femininity; and the witch hunts that swept across Europe from 1435 to 1750.
Brown Foreword by Sara Lennox Page iv Copyright © 1995 by The University of Massachusetts Press All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America LC 94-39001 ISBN 0-87023-767-5 Designed by Susan Bishop Set in Adobe Janson type by Keystone Typesetting, Inc. Printed and bound by Braun-Brumfield Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brauner, Sigrid, 19501992. Brown; foreword by Sara Lennox. p. cm. )University of California, Berkeley. Includes bibliographical references and index.
Fearless wives and frightened shrews: the construction of the witch in early modern Germany by Sigrid Brauner