Download e-book for kindle: Ecological resilience : response to climate change and by Kimberly Etingoff

Environmental Studies

By Kimberly Etingoff

ISBN-10: 1771883111

ISBN-13: 9781771883115

"Resilience is a growing to be and very important idea in a global more and more confronted with the devastating results of weather swap. towns, rural parts, and whole areas needs to discover ways to adapt to typical failures and long term socioecological alterations as a result of a altering weather. This ebook offers a number of the most up-to-date examine on resilience recommendations worldwide. examine reminiscent of this can be essential to create new rules and Read more...

summary: "Resilience is a turning out to be and very important thought in an international more and more confronted with the devastating results of weather swap. towns, rural components, and whole areas needs to learn how to adapt to common mess ups and long term socioecological alterations as a result of a altering weather. This e-book offers the various most up-to-date examine on resilience techniques all over the world. study corresponding to this can be essential to create new rules and to guage verified ones for you to make groups extra adaptable and to extend people's survival and caliber of existence whereas residing with the truth of weather swap. half I of this important compendium deals researchers' definitions of resilience, in addition to a variety of methods of measuring it, when you consider that resilience remains to be an idea in transition. half II describes a few common concepts for expanding groups' resilience at a number of degrees. components III and IV dive into the categorical dimensions of resilience, tying it to either strength infrastructure and platforms and public well-being. This simply obtainable reference quantity bargains a finished consultant to this quickly growing to be box. The updated examine offers city planners and town managers with very important info that would support advisor regulations for towns to conform to common failures and different components as a result of a altering weather. This compendium captures and integrates the present paintings being performed during this extremely important field."

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Rockström, J. Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol. Soc. 2010, 15, 20–28. 27. ; Brown, K. Adaptation to Environmental Change: Contributions of a Resilience Framework. Annu. Rev. Env. Resour. 2007, 32, 395–419. 28. ; Turner, G. Surrogates for resilience of social-ecological systems. Ecosystems 2005, 8, 941–944. 29. Handy, S. Critical Assessment of the Literature on the Relationships Among Transportation, Land Use, and Physical Activity; TRB Special Report 2821996; Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.

The various human-built systems of a city and the natural system are complex. In particular, the complexity of urban systems presents a major challenge for identifying environmental impacts of urban processes and for evaluating the efficiency of policies in reducing environmental and health impacts. Recently, simulation tools have seen significant developments in relation to transport emissions and other health-related effects. The approaches range from operations research (OR) to system dynamics (SD) and discrete-event or discreteagent system simulation approaches (DS).

In the field of transport, many studies have found that land use policies or transport planning do reduce the costs of transport and GHG emissions from transport. For example, Rodier and colleagues [34] found that more intensive or denser land use can yield a reduction of ~10% in US urban transport activity without reducing accessibility. Ewing and colleagues [35] estimated that shifting 60% of new growth to compact patterns would save 85 million metric tons of CO2 annually by 2030 in the USA. A recent study by Grazi and colleagues [36] shows a potential for changes in urban form to reduce average travel distance by 10% (25% when increasing density to its maximum degree), which, in turn, would lead to an 11% (31% under maximum density) reduction in GHG emissions.

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