Download PDF by Ali M. Niknejad: Design Simulation and Applications of Inductors and
By Ali M. Niknejad
Instant RF and microwave ICs rely severely on passive units, similar to inductors, capacitors, and transformers. Passive units enable the optimization of key RF circuit construction blocks by means of minimizing noise, maximizing achieve and frequency of operation, and minimizing energy. the mixing of passive units at the Si IC substrate calls for a severe figuring out of substrate coupling and loss, together with electrically brought on conductive and displacement present flowing within the substrate in addition to magnetically caused eddy currents. layout, Simulation and functions of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs presents a deep figuring out of the physics keen on the operation of those units at microwave frequencies. also, the e-book tackles serious blocks that count severely at the passive units, the voltage-controlled oscillator and a dispensed amplifier. layout, Simulation and purposes of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs may be of curiosity to RF and microwave built-in circuit engineers, desktop aided designers, machine physicists, and electromagnetic researchers, in addition to strength electronics engineers.
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Additional info for Design Simulation and Applications of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs
1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH In order to reduce the metal and substrate induced losses, many research efforts have been aimed at modifying the device structure and/or the IC process to minimize losses. Using thick and more conductive metallization minimizes the low frequency losses whereas using a heavily resistive substrate along with a thick oxide layer minimizes the substrate losses. Naturally, using an oxide with a lower dielectric constant or eliminating the substrate entirely helps a great deal, as well.
Electromagnetically induced losses occur at much higher frequencies where the physical dimensions of the device approach the wavelength at the frequency of propagation in the medium of interest. This frequency is actually difficult to quantify due to the various propagation mechanisms of the substrate. 4. Schematic representation of substrate currents. Eddy currents are represented by the dashed lines and electrically induced currents by the solid lines. factor. Even at 10 GHz, the wavelength in air is 3 cm, much larger than any RF inductor or capacitor.
2000]. Current constriction, or skin effect, is non-uniform as a function of the location in the spiral due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field. At low frequencies the current is nearly uniform whereas at high frequency non-uniform current flows due to proximity effects. The magnetic field is strongest in the center of the spiral [Craninckx and Steyaert, 1997] and thus the time-varying magnetic field produces eddy currents of greatest strength in the volume of conductors near the center of the device.
Design Simulation and Applications of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs by Ali M. Niknejad