Get Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816 PDF
By Robbie Ethridge
Reconstructing the human and ordinary surroundings of the Creek Indians in frontier Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, Robbie Ethridge illuminates a time of wrenching transition. Creek Country offers a compelling portrait of a tradition in trouble, of its resiliency within the face of profound switch, and of the forces that driven it into decisive, damaging conflict.
Ethridge starts in 1796 with the coming of U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, whose tenure one of the Creeks coincided with a interval of elevated federal intervention in tribal affairs, becoming rigidity among Indians and non-Indians, and mentioned strife in the tribe. In an in depth description of Creek city lifestyles, the writer finds how social buildings have been stretched to house elevated engagement with whites and blacks. The Creek financial system, lengthy associated with the surface global throughout the deerskin exchange, had began to fail. Ethridge information the Creeks' efforts to diversify their financial system, in particular via experimental farming and ranching, and the ecological main issue that ensued. Disputes in the tribe culminated within the pink Stick warfare, a civil conflict between Creeks that quick spilled over into clash among Indians and white settlers and used to be eventually utilized by U.S. gurus to justify their coverage of Indian removal.
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Extra info for Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816
In the eighteenth century and earlier, Indian women collected deadfall for ﬁrewood, thus clearing much of this debris, and the Indians also set ﬁre to large areas of forest in order to burn oﬀ the leaf and small woody debris as well as the undergrowth. As modern forest management is showing, burning has several beneﬁcial ecological eﬀects. Keeping the forest ﬂoor clear actually reduces the risk of catastrophic forest ﬁres; when most ﬁres occurred historically, then, they would have been low level, only singeing mature trees.
14 The small Upper Creek town of Sougohatche took its name from the nearby creek of the same name (present-day Soughatchee Creek), which made a distinctive rattling similar to the sound of the gourd rattles the Creeks used in their dances. 16 Creek place-names also referenced a variety of topographical features common to these upland waterways. ”17 The name of the town of Oakfuskee translates as “in a point,” which refer- 34 3. ”19 Today it is called Horseshoe Bend.
Hawkins, like Creek leaders, could manipulate these things as leverage and often did so. S. Indian agent charged with implementing the plan for civilization. But Hawkins’s access to goods and services was only remedial because the United States was not committed to the plan for civilization or to assimilation. Hawkins’s power was limited by how far the United States would be willing to go to get things done according to a nonaggression model of expansion. However, in Creek eyes, even remedial access to goods, services, and inﬂuences was worth seeking in some cases.
Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816 by Robbie Ethridge