Download e-book for iPad: Controlling Uncertainty: Decision Making and Learning in by Magda Osman
By Magda Osman
Controlling Uncertainty: choice Making and studying in advanced Worlds studies and discusses the most up-tp-date study when it comes to the methods we will be able to keep an eye on the doubtful global round us.* positive aspects experiences and discussions of the most up-tp-date study in a couple of fields suitable to controlling uncertainty, akin to psychology, neuroscience, laptop technological know-how and engineering* provides a brand new framework that's designed to combine various disparate fields of analysis* Represents the 1st ebook of its variety to supply a basic evaluate of labor with regards to figuring out regulate
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Extra info for Controlling Uncertainty: Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds
However, as with agency, the very basic assumptions that we have about the events in the world and the possible underlying relationship that they have – some of which we take to be causal, and others we decide are not – are still profoundly problematic in philosophy and psychology. The debate in philosophy was for the most part initiated by Hume, though discussion on the matter of causation pre-dates Hume: for example, Aristotle, Descartes and Ockham were concerned with specifying the concept of causation (for discussion, see Lucas, 2006; Von Wright, 1973; White, 1990).
Here, there is one main goal that needs to be maintained, and that is to keep the reactor in a stable safe state. , temperature and pressure) so that every change in state of the system works towards the target goal. Clearly, no matter what variety of system it is, at the most fundamental level, these illustrations show that the requirements are the same. Some outcome needs to be achieved, and various steps are needed in order to reach it. Moreover, this has to be done in the backdrop of a huge degree of uncertainty about what makes things in the system change.
Hausman and Woodward’s (1999; see also Woodward, 2000) development of the theory with reference to intervention13 is premised on the following type of argument. Suppose that we want to examine whether there is a causal relationship between A (flicking the switch of a kettle) and B (the kettle turning on): we could do this by examining if an intervention on A produces a corresponding change in B, by reasoning that ‘if I had flicked the switch (A), then the kettle would be on (B)’. That A exerts a causal influence on B follows only if the change to B depends counterfactually on the intervention which changed under similar background conditions.
Controlling Uncertainty: Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds by Magda Osman