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Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and many organic acids found in living things are weak acids. Similarly, there are strong bases like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and weak bases like sodium bicarbonate— Na+(HCO3)–. Covalent Bonds In addition to ionic bonds, there is a second strong chemical bond known as a covalent bond. A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. 7 The pH Scale The concentration of acid (proton donor or electron acceptor) is greatest when the pH number is lowest. As the pH number increases, the concentration of base (proton acceptor or electron donor) increases.

The higher your heart attack risk, the lower your LDL should be. Normal HDL Values Normal LDL Values Normal VLDL Values Men: 40–70 mg/dL Women: 40–85 mg/dL Children: 30–65 mg/dL Men: 91–100 mg/dL Women: 69–100 mg/dL Men: 0–40 mg/dL Women: 0–40 mg/dL Minimum desirable: 40 mg/dL High risk: no higher than100 mg/dL Desirable: below 40 mg/dL Moderate risk: no higher than 130 mg/dL Low risk: at or below 160 mg/dL For Total Cholesterol Levels Desirable: Below 200 mg/dL Borderline: 200–240 The amino acids can bond together by dehydration synthesis reactions.

They need a large input of energy to become separated. This is reflected in the relatively high boiling point of water in comparison to other substances, such as rubbing alcohol. 9 right). Enger−Ross: Concepts in Biology, Tenth Edition © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2002 Cells: Anatomy and Action SUMMARY All matter is composed of atoms, which contain a nucleus of neutrons and protons. The nucleus is surrounded by moving electrons. There are many kinds of atoms, called elements. These differ from one another by the number of protons and electrons they contain.

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